© 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Dr. Barbara Thiering
This is divided into 3 major sections:
Much of the information needed for reference has been given in
Section 3. Finding the Pesher on this website:
The Heavenly Man and the Grades
Further detail is given in the Lexicon of special meanings here.
RULES OF PESHER
While the pesher mainly depends on the special meanings of terms, additional devices were introduced.
- All events are strictly successive
In narrative, each event follows the previous one. There are no "flashbacks" to previous events. Quoted speech may, however, refer to past or future events.
- Plural of reproduction (plu.rep.)
An apparent plural term refers to a single person or object.
One person could reproduce the office of another, according to a theory
of unbroken succession in an office. So "scribes", "Pharisees" etc mean a
single person, reproducing the function of another scribe or Pharisee.
Similarly an object reproduces the function of another.
- Rule of the last referent. (RLR)
The device that makes most difference to the apparent sense
is the Rule of the Last Referent (RLR). It is: when the subject of a
verb is not given, or a pronoun alone used, the subject of the verb or referent
of the pronoun is not to be supposed from the general sense, as would be
normal, but is mechanically derived, allowing no subjective suppositions. It is to
be found in the last occurring person who is of the same number, gender, and person as the
verb or pronoun requires.
The mechanical nature of the device is seen when the
referent is in quoted speech immediately preceding. There is not
necessarily a connection in the sequence of narrative, but the referent is
nevertheless supplied in the same way.
Some cases of RLR make a significant difference to the
meaning, giving a different subject from the one that would be
naturally assumed. These are marked SRLR.
A frequent exception occurs when the preceding word is in
the genitive case. The grammarians apparently treated a genitive as
adjectival, part of the governing word. This is applied also to genitives
governed by a preposition. There is also no reference back to a vocative,
treated as a 2nd person not a 3rd person.
When two singular persons have been named, followed by a
plural verb, the verb does not refer to the pair, but to a previous
All referents are given in the word-for-word pesher. They
make differences to the meaning, giving further information. In the
resurrection narrative, for example, the device is used several
times to make Pilate the subject, whereas it would normally be assumed
that Jesus was the subject. The information is thus given that Pilate
was an initiate and could be promoted in the grades.
It also becomes apparent that participles were subject to
distinctions by the grammarians. A participle is part of a verb that
acts also as a noun. Its verbal function is drawn on when a participle does not
refer back to a noun or pronoun, but to the subject of the previous verb. It
does not refer back to a verb in speech, where the verbs may give a past or
future time that is different from the time of the participle. When a participle
follows speech, its subject is the subject of the verb in the narrative
Infinitives, not being a full verb, act like participles. A
pronoun with an infinitive refers back to the subject of the previous
verb, not to an intervening referent.
Since the equation of time and place is a basic assumption of the pesher, the Greek tenses, normally referring to time, are used in a sense that has a pesher in terms of position. In the Book of Revelation, with its simpler and more obvious systems, the present, future and past tenses are used to place the action in the center, the east, and the west respectively. In the gospels and Acts, the tenses are used to indicate differences of social position, not physical position. When the present tense sometimes appears without apparent reason in the course of a narrative in the past, it indicates that the subject of the verb, a member of the celibate community normally following its recurring rules, is at this point acting in his capacity as a man in the world of villagers and the married. It may be found for Jesus, who as a dynast belonged with both celibates and in the world. It is used only of a restricted group in the same category. In quoted speech, tenses are used in their natural sense referring to past, present and future. The distinctions in narrative apply to full verbs only, not to participles and infinitives, and indicate only minor differences in status which are not drawn out in the Word for Word interpretation dealing with major events.
- "And" begins a new sentence
Since the Greek manuscripts did not give
punctuation, it normally had to be assumed, but this procedure was not objective enough
for pesharists. Verbal punctuation was supplied by the word "and’ (kai)
which following Hebrew usage began a new sense unit.
- Questions are statements.
Apparent questions depend on punctuation, not present in
Greek manuscripts. As they have to be objectively determined, they are
to be treated as statements. A question is marked by a word, ei, the
word meaning "if". The words following it are then quoted speech.
- Words not given are not to be supplied.
A transitive verb may require an object that is not supplied. The
object is not to be assumed, but the sense of the verb alone is to be
- Repetitions of words
Repeated words are not for style but indicate two different
positions, east and west, of the same subject.
- Nouns with numbers
All nouns with cardinal numbers (not
ordinal numbers) are to be read as a numbered item in a series.
Eg. three days, day 3 (Tuesday, the 3rd day in the week). Two men, Man 2, one man only,
of grade 2.
- Double negatives
In Greek a double negative is normally used
to mean simply a negative. In the pesher it is treated mechanically,
two negatives giving a positive.
- Parts of body
All words for parts of the body mean, not the part itself, but an object used or worn at that part. A rule of possession for these terms in a form such as “face of him” shows that it is not the literal face by referring “him” to the referent before last, another person.
When two nouns or the equivalent, referring to persons, appear together,
the second one is in apposition, meaning a different person from the first one.
- Genitive relationship
When two nouns are in a genitive relationship, X of Y, X is a grade below Y in the system of grades.
CLASSES AND GRADES
The grades in the monastery system ran down from Taw 0 for the highest, equivalent to Michael the Zadokite. The letters of the Hebrew alphabet were used, starting with the last one and going
to indicate that there could be no higher grade than
Taw. (See 'grades'
in 'The Heavenly Man and the Grades' in "Finding the Pesher").
Members were also divided into classes, using the Hebrew letters from the
beginning of the alphabet corresponding to A, B, C, D: Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Daleth. The
third letter Gimel was a "g" but placed third. The letters permitted numerous
plays on words and also on numbers, for the Hebrew letters were also used for
An example is the saying about a camel going through the eye of a needle
(Mark 10:25). It combines
a class letter with a grade letter. Qof was the
grade letter given at graduation after 4 years undergraduate study. The
meaning of the Hebrew word Gimel is "Camel" and of Qof "eye of a needle". If
a "camel" of class 3 graduated, he "went through the "eye of a needle", received
the letter Qof. The saying means that a celibate graduated, and contrasts
him with a married man, a "Rich Man", who was not permitted into a monastery to
receive its education.
- Class A was for the highest priests Michael (grade 0) and
Gabriel (grade 1), who took part in the annual Atonement ceremony in
the Holy of Holies.
- Class B was for the third priest Sariel, grade 2, and his
- Class C was for lay graduates, and
- Class D for married men not normally admitted to celibate
Class C graduates were of two kinds. One kind could
represent a Taw. A Raphael, the Chief Levite, was a servant of Michael
and on some occasions could represent him, as when he acted as the "Satan",
the chief examiner to permit or deny promotions. Michael could also be
represented in the Diaspora by a Phanuel, a name that appears in the Enoch literature and
in Luke 2:36. In the
document 4Q400, Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, it is shown that
certain men could be "priests in the Holy of Holies". These may be seen
to be graduates of the ascetic schools living in the Diaspora, whose learning
entitled them to officiate on the Day of Atonement in distant places,
such as Babylon and Rome. The word "priest" (hiereus) was used for them. The
name Phanuel, with the element of "priestly appearing" was used for them.
They developed as Christian cardinals.
The other kind of members of class Gimel were those who
were under the authority of a Resh third priest and could not act in
any higher capacity. These were designated by the Greek equivalents, g and
the word gar, meaning "for". Apparently without significance in
the context, it gave an indication to the pesharist of the status of
the subject. Hence when Mark 16:8,
the original ending of the gospel, ends with the word
"for", gar, it is not a sign that it was left unfinished as has
been thought, but gives a fact about the status of the "women" (Helena,
plu.rep.). A Nazirite such as Brother James was a g - r, and the word
"for" when used for males refers to him. The particle ge is used to mean “Grade
Gimel”, that is grade C for graduates.
Another way of playing on letters was to use a negative,
giving the opposite of what was negated. The word "neither", oude
is a play on "not D (de) ", meaning "not a member of class D, the
class of married villagers". It means "not class D married but class C
graduates." "Not for", ou gar, means a non-Nazirite, one who drinks wine.
The word oun, "therefore", used very frequently in
John’s gospel, is a play on the Hebrew word for "therefore", `al ken.
It was seen as also meaning "over Kaph to Nun", these being the letters
for pre-initiates, grades 11 up to 8. A monastic initiate of grade 7,
Samekh was one above Nun 8, so was "over" all pre-initiates. The word acts as a
symbol to show that the person was a celibate initiant or the equivalent.
The word nyn meaning "now" is a
play on the Hebrew letter Nun, which has the numerical value of 50, the number revered by Therapeuts. They held their pentecontad meetings every 49 days which they counted as 50 by treating the last as also the first of the next series. They were Pythagoreans like the Essene solarists- Philo relates their valuing of 50 to the Pythagorean right-angled triangle, the sum of the squares on its 3,4,5 sides being 50. In 1QS 10:4 the letter Nun appears alone, in a context that permits it to be treated as the number. The Greek word nyn meaning “now” refers to all times observed by the Therapeuts. With the singular article, to nyn means Pentecost in June , their primary feast With the plural article for plu. rep., ta nyn means the corresponding solstice feast, the December pentecontad, 29/IX. This term is a useful method of giving the date. Without article, the word refers to the usage of Therapeuts on hours. They used the + 1 method rather than the zero for the first hour. For the first watch after the zero watch at 12 midnight or 12 noon, they used 3:00 am or 3:00 pm. Acts 22:16, Acts 26:6.
The particle men is used for a
play on the Hebrew grade letters Mem for 9, first baptism and Nun for 8,
There is further play on the letters used for the initiation
symbol. The original monastics used the X sign, the archaic form of
Taw. As shown in Ezekiel 9:4
and CD 19:12 they drew the X on the forehead of the
highest initiates to show that they would be saved in the coming
Visitation, when all evil men would be destroyed. When Greek was used, replacing
Hebrew in the Diaspora, there were two ways of changing the sign. One way, used
by Sadducees, was to use the Greek letter T, since Taw was a T in
Hebrew. The shape of the Greek T was the upright cross that gave the Christian
symbol when it was interpreted in terms of the cross of the crucifixion.
Since the word "what" in Greek is ti, this word whenever it appears has a
pesher concerning the Sadducee and Christian initiation sign. Me ti,
"not what" means "not using the Sadducee T sign" (John 21:5).
Te: a Greek
particle, was used as a play on ti, as the form used by
Jewish Christians in Jerusalem
speaking Greek and mispronouncing the vowel. It adds information
to a place name, that it is a place for Greek-speaking Jews.
The other way of transposing the Taw, the last
letter of the Hebrew alphabet, was to use the last letter of the Greek alphabet,
Omega, pronounced "O". In its uncial form it was close to being a circle. By
some party members a compromise between this and the X was made, using
a circle containing X. A play on words indicated those using it, the word "ouchi",
normally simply a form of the negative, being used for "not-Chi", as
Chi was a Greek letter represented by an X. The term meant that they did
not use X, but they also did not use the T sign.
A fifth class, E, was developed by Herod the Great, when he
invited to his table a Roman as a representative of Caesar. The Roman
was an extra at a table of 12-13. The word eti meaning "still,
"yet" is a play on the Roman class number, together with ti used for the
upright cross. Sadducees, who used the ti, continued to invite a Gentile as
the extra one at the table. Luke
13:22 shows the introduction of the custom in the parable
of the Banquet, which is set in the time of Herod the Great.
The numbering of members of the table was affected by the
fact that the highest person was numbered a zero. The next person was a 1, and so on. At
a table for 12 men, the last person was number 11. The number 12 was actually a
13th, and could be kept outside the table for 12. But with the addition of
the extra Gentile, there were 13 at the table. It is for this reason that the
Twelve Apostles actually consisted of 13 men, including Jesus.
A number used alone means a layman at that grade, not a
priest. "The Two", dyo means Theudas the Chief Therapeut
when he was at the grade of Resh. SinceResh was used for the number 200, he is
indicated by the 200 denarii worth of loaves in John 6:7. He and an equal,
Merari, are the 200 soldiers and 200 spearmen of
The numbering of village grades could begin again at 7, that
of first initiation, as 1. So 8 was 2, and so on. The 2 of John 1:35 and John 1:37 is John Mark as
a grade 8 novice.
Highest priest, equiv Zadok
Second priest, abbot
Third sanctuary priest
Wine, property surrendered
Bread, not wine
Kept outside or married
Begin monastic education
Highest elementary school
Permanently damned, defilement
Higher elementary school
Middle elementary school
TRAVEL RATES AND DISTANCES
75 stadia per hour
6 hours for 90 kms Jerusalem to Caesarea
Twice the time for horses
12 hours for 90 kms Jerusalem to Caesarea.
Walk on good road
10 stadia per hour
Walk on wilderness road
5 stadia per hour
Boat on the Dead Sea
15 stadia per hour.
No travel after Friday 3 pm for traditionalists such as James.
Shorter distances expressed in hours
Qumran to Jerusalem by slow walk on wilderness road
Qumran to Ain Feshkha
Ain Feshkha to Mird wady
Mird wady to Mird height
Mird height to Emmaus corner
Emmaus corner to Mar Saba
Mar Saba to Essene Gate Jerusalem
Damascus to Qumran by horse
Jerusalem to Caesarea by horse
Qumran to Jerusalem by horse
Joppa to Caesarea by coast road
24 hrs walk at 2 kms per hour
LEXICON OF SPECIAL MEANINGS
From Hebrew abad giving Destroyer. Revelation 9:11.
A man who had been in the world with the married class returns to the celibate status without contact with them, so "abandons" them. In Acts 6:2 John Mark "abandoned" Jesus, who was in the married state. In Acts 18:19 Paul "abandoned" the married couple Aquila and Priscilla as he was returning to the celibate state. In Matthew 27:45 Jonathan Annas relegates Jesus to the lay state, having lost his "Spirit", authority as a bishop.
Have the power to perform priestly ministry.
A pagan. From the use of the term in Daniel 9:27, "abomination making desolate", quoted in Mark 13:14 referring to the pagan Antiochus Epiphanes' defilement of the Jerusalem temple in 168 BC. Revelation 17:4,5; 21:8,27.
With time expressions, the word indicates the time unit before. In Luke 23:44 a watch of 3 hours at noon before 3 pm. In Acts 2:3, at 3 am, an hour before 4 am when the fire was lit. In Luke 3:23, AD 29, a year before AD 30, year 30 of the Christian era already being used.
About to (be)
To act at a time that was an anticipation of a later time by 3 hours or 3 months. Used of the early beginning of the sabbath at 3 pm for 6 pm,. Acts 22:16. Luke 24:21, 3 months before.
In the place of a superior, acting in his positions. Acts 26:13.
Wormwood, a poison. Revelation 8:11.
Originally the vault for reserve money, just below loc 113 at Qumran. When sub-initiates left, taking their money, they walked down the chasm that could be called an "abyss", south of the vault. Reproductions in other places Revelation 9:1; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1,3.
The Accuser, the supreme judge, John 5:45 or the Roman governor. a) In 15 AD Annius Rufus, pro Pharisee (Josephus Antiquities 18, 33) b)In 15 AD Valerius Gratus successor of Annius Rufus, who appointed the Sadducee Eleazar Annas, Josephus Antiquities 18, 33). Revelation 12:10 .
Act as a priest demanding truth on oath, as an "exorcist" Matthew 26:63, Acts 19:13.
With added decorations, those of the jewels in Revelation 21:19, the cosmetics of the bride in Revelation 21:2.
By Essene standards, wrongful marriage, as for Bernice and the pagan Polemo (Revelation 2:22)
A system on which the solarist Pythagoreans relied to give a date was that of the Aeons of the Aeons (aiōnes tōn aiōnōn). An aeon was a set of 490 years, part of the sets of 490 years governing world history, relied on in the Apocalypse of Enoch. According to that book, all time since creation had been divided by major events for the Jewish people every 490 years. When history arrived at the year 3920 from creation, the 8th aeon (8 x 490) , a Restoration would come. The Zadokites and Davids who had been expelled from office by the Persians would be restored to their rightful place in the Jerusalem temple and palace. Since creation was the starting-point, there were frequent circular arguments placing creation at a date that was 3920 years before a present crisis, interpreted, temporarily, as a Restoration. The expression Aeons of the Aeons appears frequently in Revelation. See further in the Appendix Section D. The double use of the word came from the belief that a preliminary form of the Restoration appeared at a solstice, then its final form at the following solstice. In RevelationParts C and D, when hope for the expectation was fading, the term is found less frequently. In Revelation 15:7;19:3;20:10;22:5. In Parts A and B the term appears in Revelation 1:6; 1:18; 4:9; 4:10; 5:13; 7:12; 10:6, 11:15.
The north base at Qumran was the destination point for pilgrims from other districts and other countries. Its 1 cubit circle was conceptualized as a microcosm or map of the world. It was also understood as a circular clock., expressing the equivalence of time and space in 8 segments divided by means of an X on a +. See Figure 9C. Each segment in the clock stood for 3 hours in the 24.
From the time it became a place of exile from the literal Jerusalem, a name for the base was makran, "far". This label was visualized on its south point. The Prodigal Son came there in Luke 15:13. In terms of time it stood for noon, and in terms of place for Alexandria as the southern meeting-place for ascetic Jews of the Diaspora, the Therapeuts. By contrast, its northern point was visualized as midnight and Antioch, using the term makrothen. (Luke 18:13).
The expression apo makrothen, "from afar", meant a segment that was at the limit of (apo) the makrothen segment. This was the next segment in importance after the north, from north-east to east, 3 am to 6 am. It was the position for a doorkeeper, Mark 15:40.
As a microcosm of places for pilgrims, the names for the segments could be used at corresponding positions for pilgrims. One of these was in the court at the north of the vestry (Figure 9B), where the doorkeeper Peter stood in the inner corridor in row 1 just inside the north door while trials by the priests were conducted. With a female doorkeeper beside him in the outer corridor, he acted as the Chief Pilgrim performing this function both in his own home when a priest came to visit, and in the court when the priest entered in order to act as judge. (Mark 14:54), The north door itself, to which both the priest and Peter came first, was called makrothen (Luke 22:54).
with accus. gives the corresponding time unit after. In John 19:38 it indicates the hour after the lay session 3 pm, so 4 pm, the hour when Gentiles were taught , as shown in John 1:39. In Matthew 27:53, five minutes after 3:30, at the next time point 3:35 pm. In Matthew 27:62, the next version of the Friday beginning of sabbath, 6 pm after 3 pm. In Matthew 27:63 the day after day 3,Tuesday, so day 4 Wednesday, the 1st of the quarterly month for the promotion of priests. In John 20:26, 24 hours after Saturday at noon, so Sunday at noon (see "day", with numeral 8). In John 21:1 the next set of meeting days, for the Pentecost season, beginning Monday June 1 as the unintercalated 30th.
The name "the lacking ones" from hystereō "lack", was at first used of the party of Jesus, who lacked both a Sadducee priest and a Magian as Pope. This sense is shown in Luke 23:35, "you were lacking mē tis (a name for Simon Magus as anti-Agrippa the Certain One). The adverb combines the meaning of "western" (from "behind" for the west) with this sense, referring to their party. Frequent in Matthew's gospel.
At a repeated start of the set time. At 12:05 in John 20:26, the true start of the meal session. Or on the half-hour as the real beginning of the hour after preliminaries, Matthew 27:50 3:30 pm, or 5 minutes after the start when the real meeting began, John 19:37 3:35 pm, John 20:10 1:35 am, John 20:21 6:35 pm. John 21:1 midnight as the beginning of the day, repeating 6 pm.
The severe ascetic discipline that Qumran monastics practiced (1QS 8:1-4) was practiced also by celibate proselytes headed by Thomas (John 18:36). In Luke 22:44 the additional text applies the noun to Jesus.
The upper floor of the cathedral. It originated from the prayer platform at Qumran, which was open to the sky, Revelation 9:2. In the cathedral, row 7 at the edge of the upper floor was only called Heaven when a priest was there, but when a layman it was called "air". Revelation 16:17, 1 Thessalonians 4:17. In Acts 22:23 the priest who was praying there at 4 pm on a Friday made preparations to leave his position at the "unclean" hour.
All, All things
pas, pantes, panta
This vague word refers to a member of the Herod family, following the practice of Herod the Great who claimed to be the substantive holder of all offices of ministry. It therefore gives significant information about major players in the history. In the singular, used alone, it means Agrippa. In plu. rep. pantes, "All Ones", it means a third Herod, a married man. Antipas and his successor Herod of Chalcis. Panta, "all things", the Herodian property and doctrine.
Word playing on Hillel, the first Pope, his name meaning "praising" in Hebrew, with the addition of Yahweh, the Lord. Acclamation of the new Priest-Pope in Revelation 19:1,3,4,6.
The Annas Sadducee priest, in charge of religion in the court of Agrippa II, as one who could embrace (seize) the Herod. Revelation 1:8; 11:17. (See "All")
Money received by a “beggar”, a Nazirite in temporary retreat who was not earning but not entitled to welfare tithes. Mark 10:47. Acts 10:2, Revelation 3:17
Luke 24:18. An outside dynast.
The Greek for the letter A, the first of the four classes A, B, C (G), D, for priests, levites, graduates, and laity respectively. Revelation 1:8; 21:6; 22:13.
An hour that was 3 hours earlier than the normal hour for the occasion, as on Friday afternoon, when the sabbath could be counted as beginning in several versions from 3 pm. John 19:28,33. In Luke 24:29 6 pm to 9 pm, as 9 pm was the beginning of the night's vigil. In John 21:4 3 am before 6 am, "morning".
Altar of incense
Of the two different words for incense, the kind associated with thymiama was found only in a sanctuary or substitute sanctuary, developed from the wilderness tabernacle. As the other kind (see “censer” below) was for the use of “unclean” Gentiles, the use of the sanctuary term in Revelation 8: 3, 4, 5 meant that Gentiles now had their own sanctuary, equal to that of Jews. As the annual blood sacrifice for atonement was performed on the wilderness altar (Exodus 30:10), Gentile Christian celibates used their altar for the Eucharist, interpreted as a wine/blood sacrifice. Revelation 9:13, 11:1.
Since it was a "miracle" to be ordained to the ministry even though a layman , to "be amazed" was to experience a "miracle", given a higher form of ordination, to the actual priesthood. Helena claimed it in Mark 16:5,6, but was told by Simon Magus to be only a lay bishop. With ek, to act as deputy to another levitical bishop.
In 1QS 1:20 the congregation said Amen to teachings by the levite, the only words they were permitted to say. Jesus as a lay bishop below the priest and levite said "Amen". When the word is used twice, it means that he was in the center of the row, in both seats (John 13:16,38).
the form of pas, pantes used in Attic Greek after a consonant. Indicated by "An All". It is used to distinguish James Niceta from Antipas.
Simon Magus, under the name he used as a missionary to eastern countries, Antiquities 20, 34-47. Associated in the Clementine literature with Helena, who is the Sapphira of Acts 5:1.
Peter as a married man who did not believe in celibacy pronounced an anathema on Jesus when he announced his return, which meant separation from village life. Matthew 26:74, Mark 14:71. It has this meaning in 1 Corinthians 12:3; 16:22.
This word acts as verbal punctuation, always beginning a new sentence or sense unit.
In Malachi 3:1 LXX angelos translates the Hebrew mala’k, messenger. The term was used for a dynast in his role outside the Essene monastery, acting as an abbot, bringing monastic teaching to the outside world as a messenger. In Mark 1:2 it is used of John the Baptist. The series of “angels” in Revelation Part A (i) were abbots holding septennial councils. The term "angel" appears frequently in Revelation 2-3 for the minister of a local Gentile church, to whom the pastoral letters of Jesus were sent. He did not act on his own authority, but as a messenger from a central council.
Act as an "angel", a celibate, in the white robes of a celibate. Luke 24:9, Matthew 28:8, Acts 1:4.
Whereas "another" (allos) was a deputy one grade below, "heteros" was 2 grades below. In Acts 1:20 it means Joses-Barnabas the second brother of Jesus, below James his first brother, representing celibate novices. Plu rep. Merari for grade 8 novices. Luke 22:58 Thomas the firelighter at grade 8 (village 2) novice in row 2 at 2 am.
Be a bishop, one who answers questions from the congregation. John 20:28. John 21:5.
Since the special meaning of pistos, "a faithful one", was a Sadducee, an anti-faithful one was a Pharisee. Acts 26:8.
Acts 26:19. "Persuasion" was the Sadducee method that Paul adopted at his political conversion, replacing aggressive nationalism. In Acts 26:19 "I did not come about anti-persuasion" is an obscured way of saying "I became pro-persuasion", that is that he had changed his attitude.
The way of life of a hermit or monastic, apart from the world.In John 20:7 the cubit in the cave SL6, for Gentile monastics such as John Mark.
from apostellō to send out. In plu.rep. "apostles" alone means John Mark as a Gentile permanent celibate, one who was still "unclean" being uncircumcised, so was classed with Jewish monastics who had been sent out for sinful states to the exclusion cistern loc 91. The cistern was called Siloam in John 9:7, interpreted as apestalmenos "sent out". John Mark the apostles in Acts 1:2; 4:36. apostolē Acts 1:25, the office of an apostle.
Be seen publicly Revelation 3:18.
A name referring to Mird-Hyrcania, where James the brother of Jesus, in his role of "the Lion (Hebrew ari) of Judah" taught Gentiles, "disciples", mathētai. With apo, "from" it means a place in the vicinity of Qumran, to which James also came.
Arise, Rise up
Be promoted to the level of a Sariel, a third sanctuary priest, grade 2, but not to a Gabriel grade 1 or Michael grade 0.The third priest was also a village teacher, called the Teacher, Rabbi. The original Pope, Hillel, had been a Rabbi, equal to a village teacher like Sariel. The verb is used of Jesus when he had returned to the status of a "lord", like a Sariel. Mark 16:6, Matthew 28:6.
The lectern from which the scripture was read in a cathedral, continuing from the Jewish Ark , the recess in a synagogue containing the books of the Law. The Jewish Christian lectern, called the Ark of the Covenant,was placed on the east footstool row 4, further back from the edge of the sactuary on row 7, so the Law was given a primary place. The Christian version brought the lectern forward to be on the same row as the pulpit on row 7, but on the east side. Revelation 11:19.
As with all parts of the body, an object placed at the part. The sleeve of the priest's robe in Luke 2:28. Plu.rep.the left sleeve.
As with all parts of the body, an object placed at the part. A wristband at the beginning of the arm, Acts 13:17. An "uplifted arm" was an allusion to Joshua (Josh 8:26).
The name of the area of Qumran where a battle against Rome might be fought in 69 AD. Revelation 16:16. It was an unclean place, as shown by the associated word topos. All the detail fits Loc 96 (Figure 1), the long esplanade running south down to the edge of the cliff. It was unclean, both because it contained a latrine (Loc 97) and because visiting married pilgrims pitched their tents there for sleeping at night. It was the site of the crucifixion.
Missionaries engaging in spiritual warfare by evangelism, not by arms, as practiced by Sadducees. Luke 2:13, Acts 7:42.
With a word for an hour, at 3 minutes past the hour, the time for a Gentile to offer a brief prayer. Mark 6:48, Matthew 27:46, Acts 22:6. A person acting as a subordinate to a superior in a north-east or north-west position. John 13:18,22,24, Jesus on row 7 center to Antipas or Thomas at sides of center of row 6.
kyklothen of the throne, the east guest seat on row 4 of the upper floor, at the point where the radius touched the perimeter at 3 am. Revelation 4:3. Kyklō of the throne Revelation 4:6;5:11;7:11. In the row above the point of theV on row 6 of the upper floor.
Vest a superior by a subordinate. Revelation 3:5; 10:1; 18:16; 19:8,13.
Used for "and" in the ordinary sense, rather than kai which begins a new sentence.
As many as, As many things
Gentiles who were circumcised proselytes or celibate. Acts 4:6. In Acts 5:36,37 pantes hosoi means Antipas with such proselytes, as he himself was in that class. In John 1:12 membership was extended to uncircumcised men of Asher such as James Niceta, making them tekna theou. Revelation 1:2, John Mark.
Ephesus as the capital of the Roman province of Asia, at the western extreme of Asia Minor, modern Turkey. Revelation 1:4.
aiteō, aitia, aitios, aitēma
Money paid from the mission funds as a bribe to receive a favor. John 18:38; 19:4,6. Mark 15:8. Luke 23:4,14,22,24, Acts 9:2.
See Figure 9B, the Court. The large round furnace where a perpetual fire smoldered opened towards the eastern guest place in row 1. At 1:05 and 2:05 am it was stoked up by the man who carried the wood, Thomas Herod, who belonged at the eastern guest seat of the table. He was called the assistant, using the plu. rep. hypēretai. At :03 a man preceding him prepared the fire for its restoking, cleaning out ashes etc. John 18:3. He is shown to have been John Mark, who was often grouped with Thomas Herod in the celibate proselyte monastic class. John Mark is called by the singular hypēretes in Acts 13:5, where he is also named as John.
On a cubit north to south, the opposite of pros for the cubit south to north.
Luke uses this word in the sense of "immediately" to avoid the disagreements of the other gospels about the disagreements of euthys and eutheos. Luke 22:60 at 3:05 am. Acts 3:7 at 3:05 pm.
The right to initiate Gentiles, given to Jews who were junior or of low grade, or to ranking Gentiles John 1:12, Matthew 28:18, Acts 1:7; 26:10, Revelation 17:3.
To behead with an axe (pelkys). In Revelation 20:4 there is an allusion to Isaiah 10:15, where the invading Assyrians are called God's axe, used to punish disobedient Israelites. The emperor Trajan had used it in Rome against the Roman Christian leaders
A person at the low pre-initiate grades 9 and 10, given only elementary teaching. Plu. rep. Acts 7:19, Luke 2:12.
Code name for Rome and a female mission teacher working there. This is seen from 1 Peter 5:13, "She who is at Babylon...sends you greetings." Peter was writing from Rome in 45 AD. Babylon was code for Rome, from the belief of the Qumran pesharim that all Old Testament references to Babylon should be read as pesher for Rome. A house on the Tiber Island was used as a base for the sea mission to Gentiles. Married men, being "unclean", taught uncircumcised Gentiles, and a female teacher also worked from there, either the wife of the married man or a celibate woman protected by him. The female there was called "Babylon" , short for "She who is at Babylon". But when Bernice took the position on her arrival in Rome, announcing that she would soon become queen of Rome after marrying Titus the emperor's son, the name was used in a double way. On the surface, passages speaking of Babylon , as in Revelation 18:2, refer to Rome by its code name, written at a time that Jews hoped for its downfall. But in the pesher they refer to Bernice's conduct in Rome, which was causing serious embarrassment to both Jews and Christians. Having fallen out with the Jewish Christians on Tiber Island, she had moved to a small house n the west bank of the Tiber, and from there gathered around herself men who were determined to overthrow Rome by force of arms. Revelation 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2.
Magian, the opposite of kalos, "good" used for the royal Herod party. Acts 7:19; 9:13.
The word kakos "bad", always refers to the Magians as opposed to Herodians who were kalos, "good". The word ourgoi plu. rep. means "a worker", that is missionary. Luke 23:32,33 Simon as a Magian missionary.
Pseudonym for Simon Maus as a magician Numbers 22:5 Balaam a magician. Revelation 2:14
Pseudonym for Polemo, the pagan king who married Bernice. Numbers 22:2 Balak a Moabite king. Revelation 2;14
A water washing at all stages of advancement in the grades. If with "water", by water poured from a container, Acts 1:5 a, for grades 8 and 9. If without "water", by immersion in a cistern, Acts 1:22; 1:5b; 22:16.
A "barren" woman was a virgin who had not yet borne children. Elizabeth in Luke 1:7 was not an old woman, but a young virgin who had not yet had sex. In the Wisdom of Solomon 3:13 female and male celibates are called "barren" and "eunuchs" respectively, and said to be Blessed Ones. In Luke 23:29 the three kinds of female ministry are described, of which the first is the Virgin, called Blessed.
The basketware couch in which a priest or high ranking celibate was carried, to prevent contact with "unclean" ground.In Mark 8:8 it was given as a sign of promotion to the ministry of James Niceta.
From louō, "bathe".The Bathed One, the Chief Dynast who in the monastery took immersion baths, and who could also officiate in the Diaspora. Jesus himself in this capacity in John 13:10.
Be about to
Luke 24:21. Act three months before an expected date.
The verb "to be" (be, was,were, is) is used in the sense it had in Hebrew, not referring to a state but to an action, to "become". It indicates a new state.
(animal) Head of a military division named for an animal. Antipas Herod I. Revelation 13:2
In the heroic years 1 to 6 AD the militant uprising against the Roman occupation had been led by Judas the Galilean, who was one of a triarchy using the pseudonyms the Calf, the Dragon, and the Beast. The title was a version of Lion, the name of the fourth Living Creature of Ezekiel 1, a man in the role of king. Judas founded a succession of militant leaders, including Judas Iscariot. During the Jewish war of 66 to 74 AD, Eleazar, a descendant of Judas the Galilean, was the head of militants, becoming the despot of Masada. He is the Beast of Revelation 14:9. In 99-100 AD a new war on Rome was launched in Judea by Simon Bar Kokhba (Ben Kosba). The archives of the independent Jewish state that he attempted were found in the secret caves at Murabba'at, further down the wet coast of the Dead Sea than Masada. He is the Beast of Revelation 20:4. There was also a Scarlet Beast, Revelation 17:3 one who claimed to be a cardinal dressed in scarlet. He was the second of the two beasts in Revelation 13:1-18, the Magus who was head of West Manasseh, whereas the other Beast was the head of East Manasseh. The Number of the Beast, Revelation 13:18, referred to the fact that the Magian schools used a monastic system. The Hebrew letters for their main grades, used also for numbers, added up to 666. See the explanation of this in Q and C, question on 666). Plu rep thēria The Chief Therapeut as Wild Beast, Revelation 6:8.
To beat a prisoner as a punishment. Luke 22:63, John 18:23.
with accus. In the same status as another person. In John 20:19 James Niceta in the seat of a hermit, a "Fear" in the center of row 13, on "Earth" as a lowly position.
At times when a man was under an obligation of silence, he beckoned to ask for information. Luke 1:22, Acts 18:20; 24:10. In John 13:24 Peter as a deputy to Jesus under row 7 on the platform beckoned to John Mark, who could see up to the platform from row 10.
A curtained palanquin, on which a great person lay to be carried by 4 men. Luke 5:18, Used by Bernice for sex, Revelation 2:22.
Different words translated "before" are used to give very precise information in terms of the compass points. Enōpion before means "north". The following word in the genitive means the opposite compass point, so "south". In phrases such as "before(enōpion) him" the person "before" is at the north, and the other person "him" is on the south as a deputy, Luke 24:43, Acts 9:15. Enantion before means south (Luke 24:19), to the other person north. Emprosthen before means "east". Apenanti and katenanti refer to the X directions, apenanti to the SW (Matthew 27:24), katenanti to the SE (Mark 11:2).
means "north". The following word in the genitive means the opposite compass point, so "south". In phrases such as "before(enōpion) him" the person "before" is at the north, and the other person "him" is on the south as a deputy, Luke 24:43, Acts 9:15.
means south (Luke 24:19), to the other person north.
Treat as a deputy in the village class. John 21:15,16,17, with its changes of verbs for "love" from phileō to agapaō, illustrates the fact that a village deputy could either be a "friend", a married man like Peter, or a Beloved, a celibate agapētos, like a wife or the Gentile equivalent of a wife. John Mark being both male and "female" as a symbolic "eunuch" to Jesus was in both categories, usually a Beloved, but also a "friend" in John 20:2.
(mid.) To act at the beginning of the day or night , counted according to different party views.
The Julian beginning of the day at midnight. John 1:1, Revelation 3:14, 21:6, 22:13.
means "west" Just as enantion means "south", enōpion means "north", emprosthen means "east" and opisthen, opisō means "west".
Hold Sadducee views. John 19:33, James Niceta ('you" plu) was said to be Sadducee, so would deny the resurrection. John 20:25 Jesus would adopt Sadducee views (after double negative used as a positive). The Sadducee Pope Jonathan Annas is called hē pistis in Mark 2:5. "Not believe", apisteuō, hold the opposite of Sadducee views, Luke 24:11,41, Acts 28:24. Pistos, a noun "a believing one" (John 20:27) Jonathan Annas, a Sadducee, as opposed to a Pharisee "anti-believing one", apistos.
As shown in Figure 9C, a wooden stand lay opposite row 18 of the vestry. The stand was used, not only as an "unclean" place for weddings, but as the place for Jews who had offended by taking Roman citizenship. It was surrounded by large stones forcing people to go out through the back gate to the "unclean" southern esplanade. John19:13, Matthew 27:19. In Acts 18:16 such a stand was used for Paul's wedding. The stone bench further down in loc 100, seen in Photo ZZ, was used for funerals, real or symbolic.
With accusative east side. With dative west side. Revelation 2:13.
The area outside an abbey to which married pilgrims came. It became the word "parish". Acts 7:29; 13:17.
Be a deputy with the status of a "Moses", the subordinate of the priest "Aaron". In Luke 1:19 the word is used of "the angel Gabriel", that is the Abiathar priest the deputy of the Zadokite priest, who was also a "Moses" for the Exodus imagery. Jesus to Simon Magus in Acts 1:3. Mark 15:35 plu. rep. means Theudas, the current "Moses", in his Sadducee role as subordinate to Jonathan Annas.
On the other side of a stream of water. John 18:1 in the outer hall which was entered south of the Qumran aqueduct. The phrase "Beyond Jordan" means the literal Transjordan and its reproduction in the circle at the north base, Mark 3:8.
Require a man to submit to circumcision and other observances expressing Jewish identity. Acts 9:2,4; Revelation 9:14.
In Revelaton 12:2. Have the simulated birth pains of the mother of a 12 year old boy, about to hand him over to the father at his Bar Mitzvah.
In Revelation 8:11; Revelation 10:10, on the Magian associations of the Davids and of John's gospel. In Luke 22:62, of Peter as a suspected Magian , alluding to the 4 am latrine rule.
The color for winter, hence for the north, Antioch. Revelation 6:12
Be militantly anti-Roman. In Mark 3:29, "blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (to pneuma to hagion)"means anti-Roman militarism contrary to the pro-Roman policy of the Annas priests in their role of abbot.
Give the blessing at the sacred meal. Eulogeō was used for the blessing given by the Logos, the lay David outside, over the bread, the part of the meal that did not include wine. Mark 14:22, Luke 24:30,53. Eucharistō was used for a meal of celibates that included sacred wine, Mark 14:23, Luke 22:17.
A married man or a celibate woman could achieve a lesser kind of ministry called a Blessed One, but not the higher state of a celibate Saint. The Beatitudes found in Matthew 5 and in 4Q525 contained the rules for this kind of ministry. The distinction between the two kinds is still held by the Catholic Church.
The "Blind and the Lame" were the two grades of Nazirites who were associated with the Poor and the Crippled, the Therapeuts (Luke 14:21). Nazirite grades corresponded to the number of days of their retreats from marriage. A Lame man held a 60 day retreat, and as the letter Samekh was used both for the number 60 and for the initiation grade 7, he was a grade 7. A Blind man held a 50 day retreat, and as the letter Nun was used both for the number 50 and for the initiation grade 8, he was a grade 8, not yet initiated, so not "seeing the Light".
Literal blood, the blood of a military leader used to smear the cup of fermented wine at the sacred meal, to show that drinking the wine was a sign of dedication to the leader and to the military cause. Jesus as the Lion of Judah had this role. The cup at the Last Supper had a smear of his blood, and on the cross literal blood came out of his side when it was pricked as a test for death.(John 19:34). As a dead body does not bleed, it proved that he was still alive. Acts 1:19 the militants under Judas the Galilean and Judas Iscariot used this imagery. Acts 2:19 Thomas used it. The ceremony was performed at the daily eucharistic services of males. When applied to Helena exercising priesthood illegally, she was said to be a "menstruous woman"Mark 5:25-34, Acts 2:20. In Acts 22:20, the blood of Stephen means both the cup and the wine used by Jonathan Annas. In Diaspora communities fermented wine was used, and in late night sessions with the liberal Sadducees it could be taken freely, sometimes leading to drunkenness. Revelation 8:7.
Remove from the written list of initiates Revelation 3:5.
Mark 14:65, John 18:22; 19:3. Give a light blow as a rebuke, part of the formal castigation administered by the celibate Thomas.
Blow the trumpet for the date at the Julian 1st of the month. Revelation 8:6,7.
Gentiles interested in the intellectual aspects and celibate discipline of Diaspora Judaism had been recruited about 100 BC under Alexander Jannaeus. In the west, at ports of the Mediterranean, they were initiated using the imagery of coming on board a boat. The chief missionary, a Magian Diaspora Essene, had used the parallel with Jason to appeal to pagan culture. Under Herod the Great a more biblical image was used, that of Noah and his three sons (Gen 6-8). Three classes of Gentiles who wished to retain their own ethnic identity were called Shem (Arabians who were not Jewish), Ham (Ethiopians and Egyptians) and Japheth (Greeks and Romans). At the headquarters of the mission, the Noah's ark drama of initiation was enacted at Khirbet Mazin on the Dead Sea, where a great watergate was built opening on to a jetty leading out over the water. The remains of the watergate, with the buildings inside it around a courtyard, are still to be seen there. The ploion was the fisherman's boat used as "Noah's ark". A small boat, ploiarion John 21:8, was the dinghy from the main boat used in shallow water near the shore.
An object carried at the lower body.The container, later called monstrance, used for Gentile communions when small pieces of bread, called "crumbs", were given, symbolizing seed in the fertility imagery.The container was wrapped in a cloth called its garment when not in use. It was the most precious possession of a king, whose seed would produce spiritual progeny, initiates. Celibate Gentiles used the marriage imagery at initiation, the initiates being "the bride" Revelation 21:2. The "body" of Jesus was his sacred monstrance. In plu.rep. it means the monstrance of a prince or his equal, that of John Mark in John 19:31, of Joses-Barnabas in Matthew 27:52.
In a place that is the opposite of the covered "crypt". John 10:24 the north base, John 18:20 the uncovered court in the 2 cubits at the north end of the north vestry. The leader in these places was accessible to the married class.
On display in an open place such as the north base.Acts 2:29; 9:27.
Pen of a scribe, made of bone, John 19:36, Luke 24:39.
biblion, biblia, biblos
A bound book, the form used for books in Greek in the 1st century. biblion The Septuagint in Greek, or the New Testament canonical books as continuous with it. Luke 4:17,20, Revelation 5:1-9. biblia plu. rep. The New Testament John 21:25. Revelation 20:12. This book, biblion touto the book of Revelation as non-canonical , John 20:30 (referring to James Niceta's Part A ), Revelation 22:7,10,18. Other book, allo biblion list of Jewish Christian initiates, Revelation 20:12. Book of Life, biblion tēs zōēs. list of Christian initiates, Revelation 21:27. biblos A particular book of the Old Testament, Acts 1:20; 7:42. A list of Jewish Christian initiates, Revelation 20:15. biblaridion (Little Book) John’s gospel. Diminutive shows that it was intended as one of the canonical books. Revelation 10:2,10.
from gennaō, "give birth to". "Born again" by being initiated into a monastery. The image was derived from the fact that illegitimates and orphans were taken in by the Essenes and were given a new family in the monastery, as if born again. Dramatized by the use of the tunnels as birth canals at Mird-Hyrcania. Acts 2:8. Acts 22:3, Paul entering a celibate school.
See Figure 9, showing the image of the Heavenly Man at the seats in the vestry. The two sides of his chest were on the center of row 10, the west called the "bosom", where a woman could sit, the east called the "chest" (stēthos) where a superior male sat. In John 13:23,25 John Mark sat successively on each side.
The boundary of the outside mission field, over the horizon. Luke 22:22.
Weapon carried for use in the symbolic war of Sadducees, waged by evangelism Revelation 6:2
A large bowl placed in the center of row 12 in the cathedral for the collection of donations for the 7 year campaigns against Rome from the time of Nero. Each received donations for a year, and was numbered according to the year of the campaign, consequently they give a date in one of the sets of 7 years. Ordinal numbers 1st, 2nd etc give a date at the beginning of a year, and cardinal numbers 1, 2, 3 etc refer to the end of the year. Revelation 16:1,2.
The sacred loaf , one of the 12 loaves of the Presence, eaten by monastics and by Therapeuts. The ceremony included breaking each loaf and giving it to be shared by two men.
With "loaf", to divide in two a full loaf used in the Jewish form of the sacred meal, to be shared between two men of equal grade sitting side by side. Luke 22:19. Gentiles received only the fragments and crumbs that fell during the process, and these became their bread of the sacred meal.
(verb) The term used for the first meal of the day of monastic Essenes at noon (JW 2, 131). John 21:12, 15. When Peter in later years was admitted to the monastic grade, holding a noon meal (Acts 10:9) he was given the new name Aristarchus referring to this custom. Acts 27:2.
Chasuble. Padded sleeveless upper vestment worn by an Annas priest or his deputy the Chief Therapeut, as symbolic armour for their spiritual war of evangelism Ephesians 6:14, Revelation 9:9.
the third female, "Eve", an initiate grade 7. Luke 23:29. She sat on the "bosom", row 10 west at the sacred meal, and as "not giving suck" did not teach the Jewish "babes", only Gentiles.
From the position of the "nose" of the Heavenly Man, at the center of row 7, the bishop transmitted the "spirit", meaning ordination. John 20:22.
A young woman at her betrothal ceremonies was called the bride, as she was permanently committed. The first took place 3 years before her wedding , Revelation 21:2, the next six months before her wedding Revelation 21:9. In Revelation 22:17 she was called a Bride even after she was married and had borne a child. She held a position in an initiation ceremony for Gentiles which symbolized them as the Bride of Christ.
A term indicating royal status, as the king wore a purple robe. Jesus was mockingly given a purple garment (John 19:2) and called lampros in Luke 23:11. In Revelation 15:6 the word is used for Timothy Herod the abbot of Ephesus the adopted son and heir of Agrippa II. In Revelation 19:8 the bride of Jesus Justus was dressed in white and purple (indicated by lampros). As a David queen, she was being made a bishop, like Lydia, the second wife of Jesus I, who was a "seller of purple" in Acts 16:14.
A married minister could not be a "Father", a bishop and above, but was only a "Brother", at the level of a presbyter. The term was used for all presbyters, Saul before becoming a bishop in Acts 22:13. In the singular, a symbolic brother, a partner in mission, or an actual brother who serves as a partner. Andrew was a partner in mission to Peter, John 1:40. James Niceta and John Aquila served in turn as the partner of the other, Mark 1:19, Acts 12:2. In the plural a literal brother, James the brother of Jesus, John 20:17, Matthew 28:10, Acts 1:14,15; 1:16; 7:23; 9:17; 22:5. Joseph Acts 7:23,25. Or his equal Antipas, the third Herod being of the same grade as the David prince, Acts 7:13.
The "eyes" became "heavy" when the oil in the lamp from the Menorah burned down, as it did after an hour. It then became difficult to read, as was required during the vigil. Mark 14:40
In cave 8, the cubit beyond the end of the western shaft, at SL11 above position 11 where the prince's money was concealed. Matthew 27:66; 28:1. Verb entaphiazō, to stand in this cubit to perform a pretended burial service, John 19:40. In Acts 2:29 the property of the David, Joseph father of Jesus, was placed in the caves at Qumran at his death.
A fire was lit at 4 pm and 4 am at a "Hades", a latrine, in imitation of the fires constantly burning in the valley of Hinnom, where the original Essene latrine for celibates was placed. Luke 24:32 at the Emmaus corner. The word gives the time. Used with “lamp of fire”, 9 pm, when the lamp carried by a guide to pilgrims was lit. Revelation 4:5.
A service for penitent sinners held near the furnace as a reminder of hellfire. Revelation 18:9.
The place of a reproduction of the burning bush of Exodus 3:4-6, perpetually alight. The fire for cooking the sacred loaves for the sanctuary, and also a place for judgement. Mark 12:26, Acts 7:30.
Pay money for promotion in ministry , Pilate in Mark 15:46, Helena in Mark 16:1.
A person of equal authority standing beside another. In Mark 14:70 James Niceta beside Peter.
Agrippa Herod, returned to his country during the gospel period, aimed at the restoration of the Herodian monarchy, which could only be given by permission of Rome. By ensuring that the tribute was transmitted to Rome he had got as far as having himself appointed the local representative of Caesar, using the title when acting on behalf of the emperor. In Mark 12:16,17 the discussion concerned whether the tribute should be paid through Agrippa, "Caesar", or through "God", the Annas priest, whose line had been called "tax-collectors" during the period from 6 AD when there were no Herods. The tax-collector Levi of Alphaeus of Mark 2:14 is Jonathan Annas, and in Matthew 9:9, Matthew the tax-collector is Matthew Annas his brother.
Agrippa's abbey in Caesarea, as opposed to the Magian monastery called Samaria.
One of the four living creatures of Ezekiel 1, the Calf of the north compass point. He corresponded to the levite Raphael. The Fatted Calf or Golden Calf of the Exodus imagery owned mission property. Archelaus Herod was given this position as he was an ethnarch only, but not a king.
Give a pseudonym to a place, not its real name.
Appoint as a levite, one "called beside" to be ready to substitute for the priest. Simeon as the deputy to Ananus, Luke 15:28. Matthew 26:53 Barnabas as the levite to Jesus (Acts 4:36) filled this role for Christians, and was the "other Paraclete" of John 14:16. In Acts 9:31 Barnabas is the paraklēsis.
To challenge the right to membership of an opponent.
To call upon the name, to use the name of a priest, a "father", at the time of being "born again" by initiation. Gentiles used the name of Jesus, Acts 9:14.
The word "camp" found frequently in the Qumran literature for members in villages or the Diaspora, came from the fact that villagers acting as pilgrims to a monastery camped in tents on the way. In Revelation 20:9 the "camp of the saints" was a village community that included a monastery for permanently celibate Gentiles. As uncircumcised, they had originally been classed as equal to the "unclean" married men.
A name for Qumran, the Promised Land as the highest goal of Essenes, when it was not under Essene control. Acts 13:19 under the Herods.
Captain of the temple, Merari in his role of giving the time signal for the cockcrowing on the north base. Sing. in the east, Acts 4:1, Acts 5:24, plu. west. Luke 22:4,52.
Literal inprisonment by the Roman emperor Revelation 13:10
In the imagery of the ship mission traveling the Mediterranean, the "cargo" of the ship consisted of the money that was paid by Diaspora Jews and proselytes for their initiation fees and promotions, as described in 4Q159. In the Herodian organization the money was taken back to Judea in order to finance Herod the Great's building operations. The list of 29 valuables in Revelation 18:11,12,13,14 lists the grades that were given to all initiates.
Help carry a palanquin for a priest, carried by 4 men. Revelation 2:2
In Revelation 12:5 the child Jesus, aged 12, was “caught up towards God”. “God” was Ananus the Elder a Sadducee, who was head of the Qumran abbey school for boys in 6AD. As as liberal Sadducee, he accepted Jesus as an heir of the Davids.
Plu rep, a reproduction of caves 7Q and 8Q at Qumran, where money was stored, and Cave 8Q was used for a sabbath latrine as it was within the sabbath walking distace. In the Herodian cathedral in the Diaspora, which was above ground, “caves” meant the basement below the ground floor. Revelation 6:15
Hold a Herodian (eu) feast. Revelation 11:10, 12:12.. See Rejoice.
From libano, the word for frankincense, a white resinous gum. The substance was burned in a metal censer, accompanying the prayers of Gentiles. It was a different word from thymiama, the fragrant incense burned daily in the sanctuary by Jewish ascetics, see "Altar of Incense". Gentile prayers were offered at 4 pm each day, when Jewish ascetics were absent at the latrine. But Gentiles were forbidden to use it on a Friday afternoon, as the sabbath had begun and it would mean lifting up the censer to swing it, against sabbath rules. Revelation 8:5
Latin form Mark 15:44. Hekatontarchēs, Greek form Luke 23:47, Matthew 27:54. The celibate Gentiles of Dan, led by John Mark, used the Roman military terminology for their ascetic council of 100 men. John Mark used Latin when interpreting for Pilate, Mark 15:44, otherwise Greek. He also understood Hebrew. His name combines Hebrew "John" with Latin "Mark".
Also translated as interrogative "who?", but since apparent questions are statements, it always means "a Certain One". The singular tis refers to a proselytizer of Gentiles. When used alone, the Chief Proselyte, Lysanias in Acts 7:24. In the gospel period Agrippa as an indirect way of talking about him , and also to Merari his servant acting to represent him, Mark 16:3. Plu. rep. tines Thomas as the Herod crown prince, the Chief Proselyte. Mark 15:35, Luke 24:24, Matthew 27:47; 28:11, John 20:23, Acts 9:2. In the plural with article, hoitines, the word means the Chief Therapeut in his role of teaching proselytes. The article brings it up from a deacon grade 6 to a grade 3.
An emblem showing membership of a Herodian court, following the fact that the emperor Gaius Caligula had given Agrippa I a chain (Josephus (i id=book>Antiquities 19, 294). Mark 5:3,4. Revelation 20:1 the emblem was depicted on a paten as a sign of membership of the court of Agrippa II.
A complaint, only, preceding a legal charge. John 18:29, Mark 15:3, Luke 23:2, Acts 24:2.
The pulpit on the west side of rows 6 and 7 of the upper floor of the cathedral. Revelation 9:9.
Luke 23:48. In the body of the Heavenly Man, (Figure 9) his chest was on row 10 in the vestry, with the west side called the kolpos, "bosom" for the Beloved ("Eve"), and the east side the "chest", stēthos, for the male, ("Adam"). John Mark as both male and female was on both at the Last Supper (John 13:23,25). Helena claimed male forms of ministry, so the plu. rep. stēthē is used for her in Luke 23:48.
A priest of the status of a Sariel, one of the Annas priests. Used in both singular and plural, as he represented himself in different functions. Matthew Annas in Acts 9:1,21.
Grade 8, that of novices, was the grade of a "child". Acts 22:3. All Gentiles were at first called "child" as they were not permitted to become full initiates, so becoming "men". The celibates of Dan were called paidia Child 1 and the Nazirites of Asher called tekna.Child 2. When James Niceta of Asher adopted a form of celibate life in an abbey and replaced John Mark as Chief Gentile, his change of status was shown by being addressed as paidia, John 21:5.
Make an Elect One, eklektos, a permanent celibate. Used of Thomas-Rufus in Romans 16:13. In Acts 1:2 John Mark promoted to monastic life, to remain with Jesus.
In Matthew 22:14 the saying "Many (polloi) are called (klētoi), but Few (oligoi) are chosen (eklektoi)" makes a distinction between two kinds of Sadducees, the liberal Annas priests called the Many (also Karaites from the Hebrew "to call") and morally strict ones like the Sadducee Matthias of 5 BC, not one of the Annas dynasty, who although a high priest did not officiate on the Day of Atonement because of a sexual dream the night before (Antiquities 17, 106). In Revelation 17:14 a Christian abbot in the strict tradition was appointed.
The title of the heir of King David as an Anointed One, Messiah of Israel. It was used of all successive heirs. Jacob-Heli the grandfather of Jesus in Luke 2:11. The question of Jesus' legitimacy meant that he could be denied the title. In Mark 8:29 Peter affirmed it, although he meant that Jesus was only the Christ, the lay Messiah of Israel, not the priestly Messiah who was expected also at Qumran (1QS 9:11, 1QSa 2:11-15). From his usage the name Christian was derived.
Pilgrims who traveled to Qumran to bring food tithes to the exiled priests were "called out", the meaning of ekklēsia. Those coming via Transjordan, as Peter could do, went through Petra the capital of Arabia.It was associated with water, being the place where Moses was believed to have struck the rock (petra) to produce water (Exodus 17:1-6). When they arrived at Qumran they were given a drink of holy water from the Qumran well. The word "church" means the leader of pilgrims, and Peter (petros) as the Chief Pilgrim was called the Rock. In Matthew 16:18, with a play on words, Peter was told, "You are Peter, and on this Rock I will build my Church". He became the lay bishop of Rome when the Christians reached Rome, but was never a priest, a role he left to the Annas Sadducee priests. The "church in the wilderness' of Acts 7:38 means the pilgrims who had been making their journey long before the gospel period, from the time the Essene priests whom they served were exiled to Qumran. The churches to whom Jesus' letters were written in Revelation 2&3 were the pilgrims who formed the congregation of the abbey in 7 mission centers of the province of Asia. In Revelation 22:16 the child Jesus IV being christened had the lowly status of a pilgrim, one was not capable of the higher education given in an abbey. He also "thirsted". He became the nominal head of the pilgrim class at his birth, since all adult functions had been absorbed by the Pope. The 7 churches of the province of Asia, named in Revelation 2 and 3, were Gentile Christian churches under the authority of Jesus as the patriarch to Gentiles. They were attached to a Jewish abbey and considered by Jews to be an insignificant variation.
The main sign of identification of a Jew was circumcision. The Essenes making proselytes were particularly noted for their practices of forcible circumcision. When Gentiles became initiates it was one of the main indications of their status whether they consented to this practice. If not, they retained their own ethnic identity and were given a low status. As these Gentiles rose to independence they were divided between those who still had sympathy for Judaism and Jerusalem, and those who rejected it. As is shown in Galatians 2:7-9, the term "Circumcision" was then extended to cover the former, while the latter were called the Uncircumcision (akrobystia). The verb "to circumcise" had the pesher meaning "to give the first initiation to a 12 year old boy as a symbolic spiritual circumcision". It thus gives a date. Jesus at the age of 12 in March 6 AD (Luke 2:21), Timothy at the age of 12 in September 48 AD, Acts 16:3.
Originally a name for monastic Gentiles of Dan who lived like Essene monastics, but did not want the name (New) Jerusalem that was used for Qumran. They were at first placed in the class of married men and defiled monastics, both of whom were confined to the esplanade at Qumran, loc 96. The word "city" is used for this and places of equivalent status such as the north base in the gospel period. John 19:20 row 12 of segment 8 on the southern esplanade. Holy city Matthew 27:53, the 150 cubit line on the esplanade, marking the limit to which priests and permanent celibates could go. In the period of Revelation the cathedral in Rome was converted into a monastery (Figure 20.) Row 9 became the position from which the celebrant gave communion, and row 10 on the top step became the position where communicants knelt to receive the bread and wine. The monastic Gentiles of Dan became the Christian permanent celibates, and their heads received communion, equal with all others, in the center of row 10. Its east center became the "Holy City" for them (Revelation 21:2). The same position, west center, was for female celibates. The places of the two corresponded to those of "Eve" and "Adam" on what had been the "bosom" of the Heavenly Man on row 10. The west center was called the Beloved City (Revelation 20:9) , for the Beloved disciple John Mark of the order of Dan had his place there in the gospel period. Holy city Revelation 11:2, in 44 AD the part of the building and grounds used by John Mark, who had taken over the Qumran monastery in 37 AD, Acts 8:1
The clay vessels manufactured in a monastery, used for the monastic holy meal, as shown by the potter’s kiln at Qumran and the remains of clay dishes stacked in the “pantry”, loc 86. In Revelation 2:27 they would be smashed, as an attack on the monastic discipline by the marrying class of Therapeuts.
To put a "leper" through the promotion stages, those of priests and levites. Mark 1:40,41,42 the "leper" Simon Magus, down to grade 10 of a postulant in the monastic system, promoted to levitical grades. Luke 2:22 Theudas promoted to the status of levite-Scribe. "Clean" levitically purified, Matthew 27:59.
The space in a cathedral structure under the platform holding the holy table, in which the priest sat to hear individual confessions.
A piece of linen cloth, 4 x 4 cubits, which was primarily used as a garment, worn by the Therapeuts in summer. It was made into a cloak by being held at the back with its edges brought together at the front. Since it was the full length of 6 feet, it covered the whole man, and its top part was made into a hood by tying it with a strip of cloth around the neck. The hood could be thrown back or brought forward to cover part of the face, making an effective disguise. This cloak was worn in the outside world by dynasts, and was worn when they visited the latrine cave. When they reached the upper floor, the hospital chamber, they took it off before descending below. When Jesus was brought down from the cross and was to be carried into the hospital chamber, it was appropriate for the women to wrap him in his cloak as if in a shroud, with the hood partly covering his face, so that his breathing could not be seen. His cloak was then used in the hospital chamber, its positions indicating where he was. In Luke 24:12 othonia mona means the monastic cloak of Judas, left behind when he was thrown out the window. Since it was used while travelling, the square cloth could be made into a tablecloth, to sanctify an ordinary table for the sacred meal, as in Acts 10:11. The same word also means "sail", and was used in the Noah's ark imagery for Gentile mission.
A man of the status of a Phanuel, a Annas priest , a minister to Therapeuts of the Diaspora, playing the role of the Pillar of Cloud in their Exodus imagery. He stood over the east pillar supporting the cubit of the guest witness on the prayer platform. Acts 1:9. Plu. rep. a Annas priest in the west. Mark 14:62, Matthew 26:64
Merari the lowest levite had duties concerning the measurement and signaling of time for his master Agrippa. After patrolling on the platform in the vestry between 8 and 10 pm to mark the minutes, he went off duty, acting only to signal the hours for villagers to wake up and start work at 3 am, the main cockcrowing (Mark 13:35)and 4 am its repetition for workers. As a lesser one of the Annas priests whose leader was the Eagle of the four Living Creatures, he was the "cock", below the "raven" and the "dove". He was Ananus the Younger, the youngest of the five sons of Ananus the high priest in 6 AD. In Luke 19:4 as Zacchaeus he appears up a symbolic sycamore tree, a north base, in accordance with his bird image.
A cohort , the Roman military term for the tenth part of a legion. Used in the Sadducee imagery of symbolic warfare. Agrippa as head of the division in Rome, province 10. John 18:3, Mark 15:16, Matthew 27:27, Acts 10:1.
Winter as calculated by different methods. On Good Friday at 1:05 am it was still winter, so cold, but for those observing the village start of day and the end of winter at the fast time of 4:05 am winter had ceased. When the fire was stoked up as if it was 4:05 am it was warm. John 18:18, Acts 28:2.
Act as lay, like the Coming One, the lay Messiah. Luke 7:19; 15:25. The verb "to come" appears with a preposition as prefix - come-at, come-from, come-beside, come-before, come-out, come-with, come-towards. The sense of the preposition is added to the lay action.
Indicates a change of location Revelation 21:9.
Come about, Occur
This verb marks a new time point, eg in Mark 15:33, or change of grade, eg in Acts 12:11.
A ruling given by the abbot, the Sadducee priest. Luke 23:56.
The class of non-monastic members forming the upper congregation, hermits, Nazirites and pilgrims. The table at which they ate was called the common table, the equivalent of the village table between rows 13 and 15 in a vestry equivalent. They included monastic pre-initiates grade 8 who received bread but not wine. These included hermits of the Therapeuts, grade 8, their Hebrew letter Nun used for 50, the number revered by Theraputs for the divisions of time. They could remain hermits, not advancing to abbeys, living outside, receiving the welfare tithes paid by worker villagers. They could go to non-monastic grade 7 as the Poor, meeting only at the pentecontads as a male choir led by a "Moses", or females to grade 8 the Crippled, meeting as a choir led by a "Miriam". Equal in grade to the Poor and Crippled were the Lame and Blind, Nazirites, men taking retreats from marriage for a fixed number of days, who were not given welfare tithes as their need was temporary only, but given alms, gifts of money. The "common" class included also pilgrims, members of the congregation who had gained merit by going on pilgrimages to the monasteries of the exiled priests to bring them food tithes. They also reached a non-monastic grade 7, but used fermented wine at their meals when they visited the abbeys. Their grade 8 were classed as "oil", as they were non-monastic. Monastics forbade the use of oil on their skins, as it simulated the sweat of workers (Ezekiel 44:18). Together, the Wine-Oil pilgrims gave the word Gethsemane - Hebrew winepress geth, oil sheman. The outer hall equivalent of an abbey where they had their meals was called Gethsemane.
Be at row 12 in a meal-room, the place of the "entrails" splangchna of the Heavenly Man. Luke 15:20b, Mark 6:34.
the end of the 490 years, the year 3920 from creation,the time for the Restoration of the David kings according to the Apocalypse of Enoch. It would take place on the 31st of the solar calendar. Good Friday was one of the many recalculations of when it would occur. John 19:28,30.
To declare allegiance to a high priest. Acts 7:17 Matthias accepted Ananus the Elder as potential high priest. Heb 4:14, Jesus the high priest of our confession (homologia). In Revelation 3:5 to acknowledge that Barnabas was the levite acting for Jesus in Jesus’ status as high priest.
The Chief Therapeut was the Conquering One . In the gospel period, one of the pseudonyms of Theudas the Chief Therapeut was Nicodemus, derived from the word “to conquer”. John 3:1, John 19:39. In Revelation 2:7, 2:17, 6:2, from 49 AD, the Chief Therapeut was Apollos, referred to as the Conquering One.
The actual food eaten at a village meal, cooked in a small oven at the side of the meal-room. In sing., John 21:9,13 the portion eaten on the east side, in plu. John 21:10, the portion eaten on the west side.
Copper bowl of hermits for gifts such as copper coins and frankincense. Revelation 2:18.
The part of the portable altar and ark that lay over row 8, where the judge's tithes for welfare were placed. Matthew 27:6 eis ton korbanan, row 7 where the bishop's tithes for welfare were placed. Annas was insisting that the levite's tithe in silver should be kept apart, on row 6. Judas was trying to mix this money with the welfare tithes so that all would go to Agrippa. Mark 7:11 raises the question of whether welfare tithes should be given to Asher Gentiles.
The Asher Gentile who followed a Nazirite rule.
Corner 4 of the Earth , the novice seat on row 13 the Earth, where there were 4 seats across. Corresponding buildings called the Sea in Rome. (Revelation 7:1; 20:8)
Property of a priest or king, stored in his burial chamber. Matthew 14:12, Mark 15:45. Corpse shaped parcel wrapped in shroud containing John Mark’s monastic money kept in the cave 8Q latrine, partly owned by Damascus, so now taken out for division, some to be removed to Cyprus under the alternate Magian Atomus. Revelation 11:8.
SynedrionApparently Sanhedrin, but not the orthodox one. The counsel of Pharisee type ascetics. boulē the counsel of Sadducee type ascetics. Luke 23:51. Verb John 18:39, Luke 22:42, Mark 15:15.
Solve a numerical conundrum, such as 666 . Revelation 13:18.
The 2 cubits at the north end of the Qumran north vestry where trials by priests were held. See Figure 9B. Court of Chief Priest Annas Mark 14:54; of Chief Priest Caiaphas Matthew 26:3. exō outside on row 2, esō inside on row 1. In Mark 15:16 the south base as the praetorium having an equal function.
The mission organization under Herod the Great had been called a New Covenant, as well as a New Israel. It had reformed aspects of traditional Judaism, the Old Covenant, to bring it into line with contemporary thought influenced by Hellenism. At each reform of the Herodian structure the word Covenant was again used. Acts 7:8. The version of John the Baptist, the Teacher of Righteousness, was called the New Covenant. ( 1QpHab 2:3). The Christians took over the term in their version, giving "New Testament."
A proselyte, a eunuch in the royal court who did not fight. Revelation 21:8.
In Acts 19:24 the Magian mission in Ephesus controlled the making and selling of statuettes of Bernice as a rival to Artemis-Diana of the Ephesians. In Rome the two sons of Bernice continued the practice Revelation 18:22.
An Adam. Revelation 5: 13; 8:9;, 10:6.
The "Poor and the Crippled" were the two grades of Therapeuts, otherwise called Orphans and Widows. The Poor were at grade 7 and the Crippled at grade 8. A Widow presented as crippled appears in Luke 13:11. Plu. rep. Luke 14:21.
Figure 2C. It becomes apparent from the close detail of the pesher that the word ho stauros, "the cross", does not refer to the gibbet, the post for hanging, but to a related object, a T-shaped discipline-board. The harsh ascetic discipline for monastic missionaries had introduced the custom of tying to their backs a board, half a cubit (9 inches) wide and 2 1/2 cubits long. It was tied by cloths, one round the chest, another round the waist. While worn it kept the man upright, preventing sleeping when that was required. He could move his head, but behind it was the crossbar of this object, 2 cubits wide and a half-cubit broad. It thus had three squares each of half a cubit, on each side of his head ,with one above his head. On them his titles were written in the three current languages, Latin on his left or west side, Greek as the main language above his head, and Hebrew(Aramaic) on his right or east side. The object thus had the shape of a smaller cross, and the man who wore it as a discipline board was literally carrying his cross as an emblem of willing suffering. When the man was hoisted on the crossbar of the gibbet he was made to keep wearing this smaller cross, the discipline board, with his titles on it in the three languages above and beside his head, to identify him clearly. The whole structure thus had two crossbars, a smaller and a greater one, in the shape of the double-barred cross preserved in some forms of Christian tradition. Figure 2C.
The third Herod , living the life of an ordinary married man, that of the common people, the "crowd". Acts 1:15. Plu. rep. also used for him, Luke 23:48. ochlos polys the ruling Herod in lay dress, present on lay occasions. John 6:2; Revelation 19:1,6.
The crown worn by the Annas priest in the tradition of Ananus the Elder, who had replaced the Herods and combined the offices of high priest and king. Mockingly give to Jesus who made the claim to these offices in John 19:2. It gave the name Stephen. In Revelation 19:14, worn by Jesus in 57 AD as a sign that he had replaced the Annas priests. Crown worn by Elizabeth as a “daughter of Aaron”, the Annas Sadducee priest, Luke 1:5.
To curse. The verb means an action preceding crucifixion, not the crucifixion itself. It uses the image of Adam cursed and excluded from Eden, sent outside to work, so was applied to a dynast who went outside the monastery for marriage. Luke 24:7. In John 19:41, Theudas (by RLR) was reduced to a low grade as a guard. The ceremony involved pointing at the cursed man a wooden object in a T shape. This was the actual cross (stauros).The cursing was accompanied by a defrocking, the removal of the priestly vestments to show that the man was reduced to the laity. The defrocking was associated with the Adam imagery, as Adam after his sin found that he was naked (Gen 1:25).
Mark 15:13. At the close of a session Annas' duty was to offer two prayers in a loud voice, the first in the east, the next in the west. The verb boaō is used for the spoken prayer of Gentiles that Therapeuts permitted, in place of the silent prayer required by monastics. Mark 1:3, Mark 15:34.
The word crypt, meaning "hidden place", was the area of the north vestry between rows 7 and 13 that could be temporarily covered by the movable light wooden cover, 6 x 6 cubits. It was removed for 3 hours at noon, so that men below could see the priests praying on the platform under the sun, and again for 2 hours at 8 pm, when the priests were under the moon or the levite representing it. Luke 11:33 gives the exact positions through its pesher, using the terms lychnia (lampstand) and phōs (Light) for the model of the Menorah placed at the center of row 12 at midnight. The crypt began on row 13, which was covered for the row of village leaders. They were there at midnight for the vigil of Jewish pilgrims in the congregation. (Gentile vigils were held in the congregation annexe of the outer hall, as shown on the night of the Last Supper). In Revelation 1:12, Jesus is seen at the Menorah as now himself being the Light, and the Jewish congregation which now included Gentiles. This practice is defended by Jesus in John 18:20. The later meaning of "crypt" in Christian churches as an underground place came from the experience of the priests on the platform above, for whom the movable cover was in place for all other hours of the day and night. The whole space between rows 7 and 13 was a "crypt" in the vestry structure only when under a removable cover at the set times. In a cathedral structure as shown in Figure 10, the permanent crypt , always covered, began on row 13 and went up to the lower half cubit of row 10. The holy table on the platform on row 10 rested on a floor half a cubit ( 9 inches) thick, the cubit being 18 inches. Steps from the front led up to the platform, each a half cubit in height. The height of the space was 3 1/2 cubits (63 inches, 5 1/4 feet) corresponding to rows 13, 12, 11 and the lower half of row 10. This space was the "crypt", the hidden place, with just enough room for a man to sit in darkness. Here, in the original version, as shown in Matthew 6:6, a priest sat to hear individual confessions, the man confessing standing on the steps outside.
In the chariot description of Ezekiel 1:22 the firmament over the chariot shone "like the awesome crystal".In the list of 12 "jewels" that were emblems of the congregation members (Revelation 21:19,20), crystal was an addition. Combined with jasper in Revelation 21:11, it gave an additional role to a Therapeut who as jasper was first in the congregation in Revelation 21:19. As a congregation leader he could rise to be the driver of the chariot, the vehicle for mission to the Diaspora. Revelation 22:1. It also showed that he was from the East, not the West. The two kinds of water at the bridges of the Tiber were Sea for sewerage on its west side, and River for drinkable water on its east side. In the imagery of Eden, the River was called crystal, for the use of eastern Therapeuts.
A unit of measurement derived from a man's forearm. Its length could vary, but at Qumran it was fixed as a standard, as shown by the diameter of the top of the pillar bases outside the vestry, exactly 18 inches. John 21:8.
The word potērion is used for the cup of fermented wine taken at the Last Supper, at both sessions, 7:05 pm at the common table and 9:05 pm at the holy table. Luke makes the distinction clear in 22:17 and 20. It was fermented wine used in an abbey, as opposed to the new wine used by Essene monastics (1QS 6:5-7; 1QS a 2:20 ). The practical reason at first was that new wine taken from the homeland to the Diaspora did not keep. Then Diaspora abbeys began the tradition of making their own fermented wine, continued in Christian tradition.
Pronounce an anathema, the formula of rejection for a man who leaves the ministry, whether to return to the celibate state (Mark 14:71) or to leave the community (1 Corinthians 16:22).
According to the Julian calendar, which began its day at midnight. Luke 22:53. Used in Luke's version of the Lord's prayer, Luke 11:3. On a 1st of the Julian month, at the seasonal months. The 1st of the month was treated as a feast day by pro-Romans observing it. The official birthdays of the leaders were observed on these days, including those of the Herod and David princes. "According to a day", meant a lesser feast day in the view of solarists, because the Julian calendar was inferior to theirs. In Luke's version of the Lord's Prayer (11:3), "give us today our daily bread", kath' hēmeran replaces the term used by Matthew, which means the day described in solar calendar terms. When the term appears it gives an exact date.
The north base outside the vestry of the Damascus monastery, which reproduced the plan of Qumran. As the north base at Qumran was "Jerusalem" (plural form) the point of arrival at a "city", the city name is used for the north base in all reproductions. Treated as the equivalent of row 12 inside the vestry.
Mark 15:43, John 21:12. To act as a representative of the David, the "Lion of Judah". An image of a missionary to distant places, Acts 7:32.
Revelation 16:10 go over to Rome, the Sons of Darkness.
The cover over rows 9-12 in the vestry. It was normally removed at noon every day for 3 hours, to allow the sun to shine down on to the space, for the men standing there to see the priests on the open platform offering their prayers to heaven. This was what took place in Damascus, when at noon Saul-Paul stood in the open space which was suddenly flooded with light, so that he was temporarily blinded when he looked for too long at Jesus praying on the platform Acts 9:3-9. But, as explained in the Three Hours' Darkness, it was periodically necessary to correct chronometers that had become fast by 3 hours. When they said it was noon it was really only 9 am, and the cover was left over. At the true noon it was taken off, and at the true 3 pm it was placed over again as usual. The "darkness" means the cover that was put over at 3 pm following the correction. Skotia the condition of being opposite to the Sons of Light. The Sons of Darkness were all wicked men, represented by Romans, who would eventually be destroyed. Acts 2:19. Acts 26:18 the word means the Roman power.
The female equivalent of "son", a deputy in ministry. Luke 23:28. Helena, having a form of ministry, was called by the title of the bridesmaids in Canticles 1:5. She had a center in the literal Jerusalem on the Mount of Olives, for which the singular form of the name was also used.
The name used for the successive heirs of David when they took office as the potential Messiah of Israel. Jacob-Heli in Luke 2:11. Joseph in Acts 2:25. It was not used of Jesus, partly because of the question of his legitimacy, and also because he claimed to combine the roles of Messiah of Israel and Messiah of Aaron.
3 am, the time when villagers began their day. Luke 24:1, Acts 5:21.
Luke 24:22. Exercising a form of ministry by leading prayers at 3 am.
feast day, at one of the regular great feasts, or on one of the meeting days at the quarters of the solar calendar, 30th, 31st, 1st. With a number, day 2 etc, the day of the week. The word order makes a difference, as the days began at different times according to different views on calendar. If the noun came first, it means the early start of the day at the beginning, if the numeral comes first, it means the actual start of the day. In John 20:26 "day 8" means Sunday, the day after day 7 Saturday. But the noun is placed first, meaning the early start, which for the Julian calendar and monastic practice meant Saturday at noon. However, the phrase is also accompanied by "after", meta with accusative, meaning 24 hours later. So it means Sunday at noon. Only calendarists would understand the terms, to give Sunday March 22 at noon. The apparent meaning is 8 days after the crucifixion, the extended time period which was not the actual case. The plural in combination with "those" and "these" is used to indicate the four seasons when the 31st was added, the time for seasonal councils when all the main events took place. "Those" mean the priestly equinoxes, "these" the lay solstices. The word order shows which season. En tais hēmerais ekeinais (in the days those): March equinox 31st, En tais hēmerais tautais (in the days these): June solstice 31st, En tais ekeinais hēmerais (in the those days): September equinox 31st, En tais tautais hēmerais in the these days): December solstice 31st. Variants in the word order may arise from a different opinion about which pair of seasons is the early start of the year. The singular form of these terms means the same season. For Therapeuts treating the 30th as equivalent to a 31st, "in the Days Those" meant the 30th at the March equinox, Luke 2:1. Before These Days, Acts 5:36, 21:38 means the 30th in December, the day before the 31st: With other adjectives. Many days, pollai hēmerai, means a day 3, since the days were assigned to levitical figures and a grade 3 polloi was for day 3. In the normative position of the calendar, Day 3 was Tuesday, and at the quarterly seasons this was the 31st. In this form, with the adjective first, It is used to mean a Tuesday 31st , Acts 16:18. It contrasted with the other 31st, the Friday in the Night position, which was called "not Many Days" , John 2:12. When "after" is added, meta with accus., meaning the corresponding time unit after, "After not Many Days" means the 1st , the day after the Friday 31st , so Saturday 1st (Luke 15:13, Acts 1:5). Friday 31st may also be indicated by a change in the word order, hēmerai pollai, Luke 2:36. Tines hēmerai. Refers to the meeting days for proselytes who were classed with the lay non-monastics as "hypocrites" in the Didache 8:1. The "hypocrites" fasted (observed the significant days) on Monday and Thursday (the 30th and its +2 1/2 day) , whereas the celibate priests of the Didache fasted on Wednesday and Friday (the 1st and its + 2 1/2 day). Acts 9:19b; 10:48. Hēmerai hikanai. Worthy days, for a layman who was worthy to act in the seat of a levite. Treated like kings, their birthdays and meeting days were on the 1st of the Julian month and also the 31st at the equinox or solstice. In Acts 9:23 this day was at the 31st of the March equinox, so the next occurrence of the term in Acts 9:43 is at the Julian 1st of the following season, June 1.
Used as a play on the letter D (Delta in Greek), class D for the villagers and Gentiles. Revelation 2:5.
nekros, thanatos, apothneskō
At grade 11 nekros, thanatos at grade 12. These were the grades of excommunication. They also refer to a dynast while in the married state, and of a sinner who was wrongfully rich (Matthew 28:4) consequently the place of "unclean" Gentiles. John 20:9; Luke 24:5. Matthew 27:64. The place of the "dead ones", nekroi, was a latrine as an unclean place. A dynast returning to the monastery after marriage was like a defiled monastic returning, so he began at a latrine then made his way up. Luke 24:46. In John 21:14 Mazin as a place for married villagers, the equivalent in "uncleanness" of a latrine. Verb apothneskō die. To be excommunicated from a monastery, suffering spiritual "death", since entry to the monastery gave "life" (1QS 3:7). Acts 7:4, John 11:14. In the Gospel of Philip 52:15-16 the statement "a Gentile does not die" means that a Gentile monastic, even though he follows the monastic way of life, cannot be excommunicated because he has not received "life", full membership, because he is uncircumcised. In John 21:23 the question of John Mark's status is discussed in these terms, showing that the conservative James ("This Word") held to the traditional view, while it was not held by Jesus.
The Magus (Luke 2:26) followed by Simon Magus as the chief monastic with the power to excommunicate. Acts 2:24; 22:4. Revelation 6:8. Death the Second, Atomus as the alternate Magian in the court of Agrippa II. Revelation 2:11.
Simon Magus Matthew 27:63, for his activity as a thaumaturge, performing fake miracles. Deception planē Matthew 27:64 the Julian calendar of Simon Magus, rejected by traditional Jews. A later Magus Revelation 20:3,10.
Monastic teaching and practice. John 4:11, Luke 24:1, Revelation 2:24.
Give a "horizon", a boundary, by structuring with numbers. Acts 2:23.
A militant zealot minister. Mark 6:13, Luke 4:35, Matthew 7:22, Revelation 6:14.
A day’s wage for a laborer, as shown in Matthew 20:2. Revelation 6:6.
The opposite of "confess". To deny that a man is the high priest. Acts 7:35. Peter denied Jesus this role at his trial , John 18:27. The high priesthood of Jesus, who was not born into the tribe of Levi from which high priests came, is the subject of the argument in Hebrews 7
Become a solitary hermit, departing from human company. The word anchorite is derived from the practice. In Acts 1:4, John Mark is told not to leave the monastic state, in community, to choose the other kind of discipline, that of a hermit.
In Luke 22:15 Jesus at the time for eating common bread at the common table said that he was in a state of desire, that is still in the married state when sexual desire was permitted.
The supreme head of a monastery, who had absolute authority (Luke 2:29). Herod the Great claiming the same authority, Luke 14:21
Punish by Rome. Luke 15: 17. Acts 5:37. The verb diaphtheirō means put under the power of Rome, Revelation 8:9.
Rome, as the place from which military destruction came. The Roman governor representing it, Acts 2:27,31; 13:34,36
Row 13 in the house of Bernice in Rome, as being on the same line as a latrine. Revelation 17:8,11.
A name for the levite Judas Iscariot when he was with the married class. John 13:2, Luke 4:6. Eleazar of Galilee the levite to Simon Magus as Ananias, Antiquities 20, 43.
Acts 1:14; 8:13. Be symbolically married by appointing a female partner. Acts 1:14 Antipas as the male choir leader to Helena as the female choir leader. Acts 8:13 Simon Magus appointed Philip as a "female", head of the female orders.
The Annas priest in full regalia wore a crown called stephanos, but on less formal occasions such as the evening meal wore a circlet called "diadem". In Revelation 19:12 Jesus Justus, as his deputy only, did not wear a full crown at his coronation, only the ornamented circlet. A smaller crown like a tiara, also worn by the Pharisee high priest. Revelation 12:3, 13:1
The Aramaic language spoken by the common people in Judea. "Own dialect" Acts 1:19 , that of the "own" class, married with private property.
Teaching of Greek philosophy following the model of Plato. Luke 2:35.
John 20:24. In the Abraham imagery for world mission set up in the time of Herod the Great, the "Abraham", Hillel, was the Pope or Father in the center, Jerusalem, the "Isaac" (Menahem the Essene) was the patriarch of the east, and the "Jacob" the patriarch of the west. The "Joseph" was assigned to the far west. Thomas Herod as a child had "lost his birthright" by being disinherited by his father Herod the Great, so was appropriately made the "Esau" of the set, as the biblical Esau had lost his birthright as the elder brother of the twins Esau and Jacob (Gen 27 ).
Dip in a basin of holy water, as a more limited way of purifying compared with immersion in a bath, for which baptizō is used. Mark 14:20, John 13:26.
A Gentile student. Sing. the teacher, John 19:38, Acts 9:26. Plu. rep. the Gentile himself.With "of him" meaning Jesus, John Mark. When mathētai alone, James Niceta replacing John Mark. John 20:10,19; 21:1. Other disciples, alloi mathētai, the alternative Chief Gentile, James Niceta in John 21:8. John Mark in John 20:25 after the promotion of James Niceta. Acts 9:1, disciples of the Lord, James Niceta.
A debate among married villagers, the "friends", not celibates, Luke 22:24.
A psalm sung aloud by a celibate Gentile graduate of Dan at the times when Asher Gentiles were offering a silent prayer. Matthew 27:24 at 6:35 am when Pilate acted as a Gentile bishop. For those disapproving of Gentiles being heard, called a "noise". Acts 24:18, Mark 5:38.
A homosexual, as in Deuteronomy 23:18. In the list of members of a militant abbey in Revelation 22:15 the homosexual, as a plu. rep. In Mark 7:27,28 the question of homosexuality is dealt with in Jesus' exchange with Helena the Syrophoenican woman on the subject of "little dogs" kynaria, homosexual initiates. Jesus is quoted as saying that it was not Herodian practice, kalos, to give the sacred bread of Nazirite Gentiles, tekna, to the "little dogs". Helena replies that it was the practice of monastic Gentiles, paidia, "under the table" to share the crumbs of sacred bread after the meal with homosexuals, so having some fellowship with them. Jesus' answer to her meant that she was permitted to act as a lay levite, a teacher, with the congregation. Her role as the head of Asher was to be the Mother Sarah to proselytes, who included the eunuchs of the Herodian court.
A decree binding on the ascetic mission. Luke 2:1 sing., a decree of Caesar. Acts 16:4 plu. rep. decrees for Gentiles made by the Council of Jerusalem. Acts 17:7, decrees issued by Agrippa II as the representative of Caesar.
Transport animal for a lower class person over a short distance. Higher class used horses.Luke 10: 34, Acts 23:24. Revelation 18:13.
The door into the sacred meal chamber, which was closed at 5 minutes past the hour to prevent non-initiates entering. John 20:19,26, plu.rep.
See Figure 9B, the Court. Inside the north door doorkeepers stood, to open it ceremonially for the judges to come in to the court. Peter as the male doorkeeper stood in the inner corridor,while the place for a female doorkeeper was beside him in the outer corridor. They stood in the position of a village husband and wife receiving a visiting priest at their door. John 18:16
The word "double" refers to the Nazirite period for spiritual retreats, numbered in days. Bernice kept Nazirite vows, as is shown in War 2, 313. Ordinary Jews kept a Nazirite period requiring abstention from wine for 30 days, but ascetics, much stricter, doubled it to 60 days, and added the requirement of abstention from sex. To "double the doubling" meant to make it 120 days, that is 4 solar months of 30 days each. Revelation 18:6.
The role of a Kohath in the Noah's ark drama, when he as the "Dove" and Gershon as the "raven" were sent out by Noah to test for dry land (Genesis 8:6-12). The abbot grade 1 came down to grade 4 "in the body" for this role , Luke 3:22. A "chicken of a "dove" was a student of the abbot in this role, Luke 2:24.
With genitive, down-from in doctrine or hierarchy, Revelation 9:4. With accusative, according to, as in the titles of the gospels.
A layman who was "down from the House (oikos)" that is not in the celibate ministry. Used for Therapeuts. Plu. rep. for married men. Acts 9:22; 22:12, Revelation 17:2.
Always used with "world", the married class. They were "thrown down" from the higher state of being celibate.Luke 11:50, John 17: 24. Revelation 13:8; 17:8.
In the heroic triumvirate of 1-6 AD, the Dragon with the Calf and the Beast had been Joazar Boethus, a Pharisee high priest who acted as a moderating figure. As Pharisee he was, however, a nationalist. In Revelation 20:2 there is a new triumvirate, modeled on the earlier one, in which the Dragon is a Pharisee priest in the court of Agrippa II in Rome.
from hypnos, "sleep". "Dream dreams" Acts 2:17, be a Joseph, one who gave the pesher of Pharaoh's dreams (pithron in Gen 40:5 ). To give the pesher of scripture was the speciality of the David crown prince, Acts 2:17.
Drink the sacred wine at a sacred meal. Mark 14:23, Luke 22:18, Acts 9:9.
Take a drink that is not sacred wine, water (Matthew 10:42) or poisoned wine (Mark 15:36, Matthew 27:48).
Be a monastic graduate of the Diaspora who used fermented wine as the sacred drink, whereas homeland monastics used new wine. Since the sacred wine was at first brought from the homeland, it would not keep for a long journey. In Acts 2:15 John Mark, a Diaspora monastic used fermented wine. The charge of "drunkenness" brought against Jesus in Matthew 11:19 meant that he sided with the Diaspora against homeland monastics.
The autumn, dry when compared with the green spring. Also the western ascetics who did not use immersion baths. Luke 23:31.
Play on letters. Matters(ta) for Class D villagers and Gentiles Revelation 2:1.
Dust as a symbol of defilement Mark 6:11, Revelation 18:19.
Be a minister to a church for the married class, “down” (kat) from the “house”, .sacred meal chamber. Revelation 2:13.
A monastic graduate, as monastics shared property with each other. A Herodian monastic, Thomas Herod, Luke 2:3. Used of Thomas, Acts 2:6. Eis hekastos Thomas as both a "1", an initiate at grade 7 by the village method of re-numbering, and a graduate grade 3, that is he represented the whole body of monastic undergraduates, from Samekh to Qof.
The Living Creature for the West in Ezekiel’s chariot vision, coinciding with the Roman emblem the Eagle. Flying Eagle, the Annas priest alternating with the Magus in Babylon as well as Rome. Revelation 4:7, 8:13, 12:14.
ous, ōtarion, ōtion
The first row of the congregation annexe in the outer hall (Figure 15B) was for the leaders of village pilgrims such as Peter. He sat in row 13 center east. Further to his east stood a 1 cubit square writing-desk where copies of approved books were placed for teaching to Gentiles. It was called an "ear" as it was beside the "face" in the version on row 13. Luke 22:50, John 18:10, Matthew 26:51, Mark 14:47. When the Pharisee power took over at midnight on the night of the Last Supper, James brother of Jesus became the legitimate David, with the title of "king", melek in Hebrew, Malchus in Greek. Peter on row 13, knowing that James required the circumcision of Gentiles took an action intended to bar James from teaching Gentiles. He placed across the doorway the sword representing the sword of the cherubim barring the way in to Eden (Genesis 3:24). By the use of RLR it is shown that James cut off Peter's right to teach, by accusing him of Magianism. Revelation 2:7 Peter in the seat east of center of row 7 on an upper floor, the Ephesus scriptorium.
with genitive. 24 hours before the next time unit. Luke 22:15 In John 13:1 Thursday March 19 at 3 pm, 24 hours before Friday March 20 at 3 pm, the two dates being the two different versions of pascha, the unleavened bread.
Luke 22:44, in the added verses not in Vaticanus. Acts 12:5. The form of ascetic discipline required of Gentiles, genuine commitment only without ritual requirements.
The central point of the X on the ground floor at Qumran or on the middle floor of a cathedral, where abbey leaders sat at the meal table. They sat under Heaven, the rows at the edge of the upper floor. Revelation 8:7.
Matthew 27:54; 28:2. A pseudonym for the Chief Therapeut, Theudas, who, with Alexandrian Therapeuts, was capable of dramatically changing his political views. A triarchy of leaders, claiming to represent celestial powers, used the pseudonyms Lightning (Simon Magus), Thunder (the Annas priest) and Earthquake (Theudas). Revelation 11:13, 6:12, After 44 AD Apollos the successor of Theudas became the Chief Therapeut, also called Earthquake.
The literal Babylon. Since the name Babylon means Rome in the pesher, the names of the compass points are used for the great capitals. Matthew 2:1, Luke 13:29, Revelation 16:12; 21:13.
Eat the holy bread at a sacred meal.
Take the common meal with the married class. Revelation 12:4.
The Amen said at the end of a service, spoken by the ministers and echoed by the congregation. Acts 2:2,3.
A leader who held the position of the Light, the Pope, could be "eclipsed" by doing wrong or failing. Luke 22:32; 23:45.
A play on "stand out", a dissenter, also referring to the ecstatic meetings of the Therapeuts. A person in "ecstasy" acted as a Therapeut, wearing their distinctive garment. Acts 10:10; 11:5; 22:17,
The married quarters attached to an abbey, where the married were in the "flesh", so in "Egypt". When "Egypt" alone is used, it is the row at Ain Feshkha where the Chief Therapeut in the married or lay state presided , Acts 7:9. Egyptian, the Chief Therapeut Theudas Acts 7:24. Apollos Acts 21:38. Plu.rep. Antipas the married Herod equal to Theudas, Acts 7:22.
In Revelation 17:11 the word "eighth" identifies Jesus Justus. The solarist organizational method worked in fortnightly courses, giving 26 courses in the year of 52 weeks (1QM 2:2). It appears that in each fortnight, the first week was under the authority of the Chief Priest and the second under the authority of the Chief Layman, the David. Jesus Justus in 70 AD was acting as the David, for his father Jesus had retired. The 8th day was the second sabbath in the fortnight. The 8th day named in Revelation 17:11 was the Friday hour that was counted as the beginning of the sabbath, 3 pm in this case. The rule for ordinal and cardinal numbers was that the ordinal was used at the beginning of the unit, the cardinal at the end. In John 20:26 the term "day 8" is used, meaning the end of the sabbath on Saturday. In this verse the word meta with accusative is added, meaning that it was after another unit, so Sunday at the corresponding time. In this case it was Sunday at noon, for those who treated Friday noon as the beginning of the strict sabbath.
A term that became the Christian presbyter, developing into "priest". A minister in the monastic system at grade 5, who could also serve in the villages. It was the grade below a bishop, not having authority. Luke 15:25 Jacob-Heli in old age. Plu.rep. James, Matthew 28:12, Acts 2:17. Elder 24, a royal servant, a cardinal grade 3, who represented the king on the royal row 3. His office was described in 4Q400, where he was called a “god” and a “priest of the Holy of Holies”. He marked the 24 hours of a day by using the oil tube, the equivalent of a clock which showed exact hours and theit sub –divisions. Originally the Jewish day began at 6 am in the east, going through 6 pm in the west, the beginning ,of night. So, in the time-place equivalence, the cardinal started in Babylon and went through Rome. But when the Julian calendar was introduced, starting the day at midnight, his position was in the north, in Antioch, going through Alexandria at noon. He thus belonged at all 4 compass points. The name cardinal meaning “hinge of a door” was introduced for his office, giving the term cardinal points. In each place he represented the king, wearing scarlet. Revelation 4:4; 11:16
A celibate following the strict moral discipline of the Sadducee "Few" as opposed to the looser practice of the Sadducee "Many". Thomas Herod, now celibate, had become an Elect One in Romans 16:13. Acts 9:15.
The structure of the missionary council of which Jesus was part was theoretically twelve plus a Gentile as 13th. The leader, the highest priest, was numbered as a zero, so the 13th was numbered 12. John Mark as the 13th, the Gentile, was called the Twelve (Mark 3:14). When Judas Iscariot was missing, John Mark as now the 12th was called the Eleven (Luke 2:14; 24:9) or the Eleven Apostles (Acts 1:26). When "disciples" was added, it meant James Niceta, who replaced John Mark as Chief Gentile (Matthew 28:16).
The pesher meaning of “seize”, krateo. Used for the priest who was closest to the king, who would crown him and embrace him at the coronation. Revelation 1:6,8.
To draw the time circle of 8 cubit diameter representing 24 hours. Originally with its center on row 6 for celibates, then for the monastery with its center on row 9, as in Revelation 20:9.
teleō (verb), telos (noun) Verb, end a predetermined period, Revelation 20:3, including a period of ministry either through retirement or exclusion. Acts 13:29, Revelation 10:7; 15:1; 17:17. Noun, the end of a fixed time period, 3 am the end of the night for workers, Revelation 21:6; 22:13.
A crown prince, the sign of the endurance of the royal line. In Revelation 14:12 Timothy Herod, the adopted heir of Agrippa II.
The Roman power. Plu. rep. the Roman governor as its representative. "Love your enemies" agapate tous echthrous in Matthew 5:44 had the pesher " invite the Roman governor to the Agapē meal", the holiest sacred meal, as a sign of the full acceptance of Gentiles. Acts 2:35 the Roman governor Pilate to be invited to the fellowship meals of villagers, seated on row 13 beside the host. Plu rep Marsus Roman governor of Syria Revelation 11:12.
There was a seat for an honored Gentile as a 13th at the meal table, in a place that had been established for a village wife. When the woman was present the meal of Therapeuts was called an Agape, a "love-feast". Gentiles acting for the "enemy" (echthros), Rome, seen as a hostile power, were not at first admitted, but under Sadducee and later Christian influence the governor was received as a guest. This was the more exact meaning of "love your enemies". Luke 23:12.
In the imagery of the Heavenly Man, the "entrails" were on row 12, the position for a superior of the village class.
Jonathan Annas determined to protect his priestly status as "God" against the claims of Jesus was like the Old Testament God Yahweh who was "jealous" in the sense of "zealous". (Exodus 20:5). In its bad sense it was envy. Mark 15:10, Matthew 27:18.
The status of being a bishop, episkopos. The bishop, mebaqqer in Hebrew, was an official of the Qumran sect, found at both the monastery and in the villages. He was a dynast who met pilgrims when they came to the monastery, and acted as a pastor to them when he was in the married state living in the village. A dynast was equal to a levite, so Judas Iscariot had had this role, Acts 1:20.
A square with equal sides, Revelation 21:16, the 2x2 cubit gate at the communion rail. The pesher negates the apparent meaning that the height of the walls of the building is the same as the length and breath.
Teach a gospel as the “good news” (euangelion) of atonement, the Sadducee peaceful message in the Diaspora mission. Isaiah 61:1-2, using the term in LXX, was quoted by Jesus in Luke 4: 18-19. It had developed a calendar association, the good news of the end of a 490 years for the Restoration,the year 3920. So Jesus announced its fulifilment at thecurrent version of the date 3920 after another adjustment to 29 AD. Revelation 10:7.
Normally 6 pm every evening, John 20:19, but early on Fridays. For Gentiles, 4 pm, Matthew 27:57, Mark 15:42. Opse 9 pm (Mark 11:19) 3 hours before the midnight start of day, so Matthew 28:1, Saturday 3 am, 3 hours before 6 am, which began Saturday the true first day of the sabbatical year according to some views.
9 pm in Luke 24:29. "Towards evening" was the hour before, at 8 pm.
A person guilty of the worst in the list of of sins. Incest by Agrippa II in Acts 16:2; 17:5. Agrippa II as the man with the evil spirit in Acts 19:13-17.
The pesher method of reading scripture, which depended on exact observation of every detail. Luke 1:3, Matthew 2:7, Acts 22:3.
At a higher grade than previously. Matthew 2:10, Luke 18:23, Revelation 16:21.
The teaching of the Exegetes, praised by Josephus in Antiquities 17,149 for teaching ancestral laws to the young. It appears that their school in Jerusalem was in the approximate position on a ridge on Mount Zion where a present school stands, an hour's slow walk up from the Essene Gate. The verb in Acts 9:27 is used for Barnabas teaching John Mark, both celibates who would have joined this school.
Matthew 28:9. Treat as a Joy, chara (See Joy) the wife of the Zadokite. Hail a layman. In Rev 11:10 and 19:7 the word is used with additional political content.: join in celebration as married men attached to an abbey.Revelation 11:10, 19:7”
As with all parts of the body, an object used at the part. The lamp that was used on row 7 for reading the Law, at the "eyes" of the Heavenly Man. Singular form, the right eye on the east center, plural form the left eye on the west center. Luke 24:16, Acts 9:8.
The "face" was the strip of cloth tied around the neck in order to make a hood of the upper part of the cloak. Since it came up to the chin, the beginning of the face, the word "face" was used for it in accordance with the rule for parts of the body. In Luke 24:5 the strip of cloth was used by Theudas to stuff the gaps in the niche holding the Rock, in order to close off the air hole to the dungeon. Acts 2:28 worn by John Mark. A traveling missionary after taking off his cloak in the meal chamber used the strip of cloth to lay on the equivalent of the dais step to make it a holy place for confessions and absolutions (Matthew 26:39,67; Mark 14:65). Also used for the part of the table at the center of row 7, on the "face" of the Heavenly Man. It became portable, carried to other places by a missionary so as to celebrate communion elsewhere. Luke 9:51. Revelation 10:1; 20:11.
A title for the Sadducee priest as the "Abraham" who was justified by his faith (Galatians 3:6-7). Mark 2:5, Acts 26:18. "Faithful", holding Sadducee views.
Opposed to the Pope having faith like Abraham. From 6 AD the Pope was an Annas Sadducee called pistis "faith" in Mark 2: 5, so a-pistos means Pharisee, Revelation 21:8.
Kneel, on a place intended for the congregation to kneel, such as the dais step row 13 in the vestry. Or in a pew in the congregation, Mark 4:4. Revelation 8:10.
On behalf of a false king, a Herod. Mark 14:56,57, Acts 6:13.
False prophet, False One
Herod of Chalcis the brother of Agrippa I, a false claimant to the Herodian monarchy, engaged in plottimg against him in March 44 AD. Revelation 14:5. His successor in Revelation 2:2. The sons of Bernice, who acted as queen for her brother Agrippa II, and who was married to her uncle Herod of Chalcis, having two sons with him, Bernicianus and Hyrcanus. There was no objection to niece marriage in the Herod family, but it is condemned in the Temple Scroll(11QT 66;15).As Agrippa II had no children, she had a rightful claim that her sons were the Herod heirs. Agrippa, however, quarrelled with her and left his property to Christians, disowning them, so they were called "False ones". Bernicianus the elder was called "false prophet" as a Prophet was equal to a deputy, (Revelation 16:13; 19:20; 20:10). Hyrcanus the younger was called False One (Revelation 22:15), and another claimant to the Herod line who was in Britain was also called False One ( 21:27)
A dynastic line. Acts 7:13; 18:2; Revelation 22:16.
A 40 day fast, occurring in a quartodecimal intercalation year, so giving a date. A 40 day fast came about from the application of the rule given in Daniel 10:2-4. From the end of the 1 1/2 day epaurion at the unintercalated 31st of the 1st or 7th month , there were 16 days to the intercalated 31st, then 3 more days until the beginning of a 3 week fast which ended on the 24th of the first month. 16 + 3 +21 = 40. Acts 7:11, Luke 15:14, Acts 11:28. It is seen in Revelation 6:8 that half-way through the 14 years fasting period a change was made to beginning the day in the evening intead of the morning, or the reverse according to the position of the calendar. In Revelation 6:8 it was 50 AD, half way through the north solar 14 year intercalaion that had started in 43 AD in the Day position.
giving the word Pope. In the Essene monastic system, the "Gabriel" who acted as adoptive father to the orphans who were taken into the monasteries as acolytes. Simon the Essene , the Gabriel, Luke 15:12. In the abbeys, the abbot, Abba "father", the Annas priest, acting as a symbolic father to villagers, in the succession of Hillel, the first "Abraham". With article at grade 2, that of Sariel(at grade 1 as an abbot, Abba), John 20:21. Without article at grade 5 , John 20:17. In plu.rep. the Chief Therapeut acting at grade 2, Acts 26:6. Fatherly, the leadership of Therapeuts, Acts 22:3. In Acts 7:14 Jacob-Heli as a Father to the uncircumcised , the Sower. He was a third Father to Dan Gentiles as orphans.
Refers to the discipline of the Therapeuts. "Fear" and "trembling" were names for the Chief Therapeut at different grades, the latter when he was an old man. Fear of the Jews, John 19:38; 20:19, Theudas in his role as subordinate of Antipas. The verb, to act according to the forms of ministry of the Therapeuts. Mark 16:8, Luke 24:5, Matthew 28:4,5, Luke 2:9, Acts 9: 26. Fearful, Luke 24: 37, following the discipline of the Therapeuts. As hermits living alone they were less secure than monastics. When in the abbey they wore a black vestment.
A "feast" was also a fast, a day for abstaining from food for religious reasons. The word was used for the Day of Atonement (John 7:10,14,37) and also the 31st when a fasting period for intercalation began. The 31st began at varying times according to different views on the start of the day.(Mark 15:6, John 6:4).
Give the common bread of village initiates, not sacred bread of celibates. Acts 13:18, of a woman teacher, "give suck" Luke 23:29.
As with all parts of body, an object used at the part. The jar for the village shared property held by the bishop to be spent on welfare (CD 14:12-16). Such a jar was washed at the Last Supper to ensure that no money was left behind or wrongly taken. For Judas in the cave, a jar that was his property as a bishop lay in the cubit beside his literal feet, John 20:12. In Matthew 28:9 Mary Magdalene about to live apart from Jesus held his jar as a sign that she would be supported from the welfare funds, similarly at her marriage ceremony, Luke 7:38. In the imagery of the Heavenly Man, the "feet" meant both the buttocks on row 12 and the place where the jar, thought of as "filthy lucre" was placed. In Revelation 10:1, “feet” means the welfare jar of Atomus. the cardinal in the court of Agrippa II.
The Few were said to be "chosen", Elect, meaning following strict celibate rules. See "Many"
The Diaspora, the word meaning "sown" in the wider world. The mission to Jews of the Diaspora brought the "seed" of ascetic doctrine to them, so that some were initiated and advanced into higher stages of membership and ministry. These were permitted to attend the councils at the Qumran monastic center, the frequency of their attendance determined by their distance from the homeland. They were classed with pilgrims, who when they visited Qumran were confined to a congregation. Their leader sat on row 13, the highest row in the "pantry", the congregation room. In the imagery of the Heavenly Man this was the row for the "seed". Gentiles of the married order of Asher also joined, and were likened to "wheat" or "barley", the types of bread in the "feedings of the multitude". These members were thought of as the products of an "Adam" when he had been expelled from Eden and had to work for a living (Genesis 3:17-19). The imagery is drawn on in the Parable of the Sower, which gives the history of the mission to Diaspora Gentiles. At Mird-Hyrcania, the cells under the platform to which women and Asher Gentiles were confined, Luke 15:25. Plu. rep. the center for this kind of Diaspora mission, the house of Antipas on the Tiber Island in Rome, Luke 15:15.
A man at the grade called Nun, the letter used for 50 in Hebrew. Acts 13:20. In John 21:11, the 50 were part of the monastic system to which Titus belonged. Titus himself was the 50, referred back to in the following verse, as he was in the novice class.
Literally, late summer fig . A person, member of the Figtree party of monastic militants and proselytes, its fruit a recruited proselyte who paid the fees. Revelation 6:13.
Engage in the symbolic warfare of the peace party, using the Sadducee method of persuasion, not literal arms. Acts 5:39; 7:26
In Hosea 2:12 the Figtree and the Vineyard are presented as symbols of Israelite prosperity, The ascetics applied the terms to their two kinds of institutions, monasteries and abbeys. The monasteries which also accepted Gentile monastics in their Eden schools were called the Figtree, from the fact that a Gentile Adam could both attend the school and work outside, where he wore the fig leaf. The abbeys, which manufactured wine, were called the Vineyard. They permitted marriage, not living under the stricter kind of Essene discipline. The Sadducee Annas priests acted as abbots to the Vineyard. Revelation 6:13.
Extend an office, Acts 2:4; 9:17; 13:9, filled with pneuma hagion, promoted from lay bishop to provincial bishop.
The four qualities listed in Revelation 22:11 -holy, righteous, unrighteous and filthy- corresponded to the positions of the chariot wheels for Diaspora mission. (Figure 15b). They designated the places to which the missionaries would go. "Filthy", the lowest , was the SW wheel, the direction for the worst of Sinners, including the Kittim, pagan Romans.
Recruit to one's party. Acts 9:2. "Seek and find", attempt fellowship with another minister and find it. John 21:6. Not find, not be admitted as a minister in another party, Luke 24:3, Luke 24:23 of Helena. To "find the body" to be accepted to concelebrate with an equal monstrance.
The ring on a finger, that of a bishop who was "married" to his villagers. Luke 15:22 John 20:25. The ring shape was that of the last letter of the Greek alphabet, Omega drawn as an "o", and by Greek speakers rejecting Hebrew language it was used as a substitute for the X meaning Taw, the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet. John 20:25,27.
To cease to hold an office from which retirement was possible. In Acts 7:15 Jacob-Heli at the age of 80 ceased to minister in 1 AD, years before his death. If a man was murdered, it coincided with his retirement. In Matthew 2:15 Herod the Great's death coincided with his "finish" because he was poisoned in his final days. In Acts 2:29 Joseph the father of Jesus was murdered through the agency of Agrippa when Agrippa returned to Judea in 23 AD.
The large furnace in the north part of the vestry where the 7 holy loaves were cooked, as opposed to the small oven where the 5 common loaves and the fish for eating were cooked. The remains of the round furnace are still to be seen outside the north wall of the north vestry (loc.109) (Figure 9B) and the remains of the other oven on row 4 beside the upper door in the east wall. Both were lit at 4 am. Luke 22:55, Acts 2:3. With asbestos (Mark 9:43) the furnace, situated near the court where judgment was given, symbolized the power of holiness to destroy the evil of Gehenna, Hades. "Fire" in Acts 2:3 and Acts 2:19 refers to Thomas as the one who lit the monastic fire. In Revelation, the oil lamp used for lighting and kindling fires at 9 pm and 3 am, stored at the NE and NW podia. Revelation 1:14, 10:1.
Fire of coals
The furnace at the north of the north vestry was kept constantly smoldering, and when needed for cooking it was stoked up. After burning for some time it was reduced to a fire of coals ready for cooking. This was its condition at 1am in John 18:18. The word anthrakia is used in LXX Isaiah 6:6 for the coals from the fire giving off smoke at the vision in the temple. The 2 uncovered cubits at the north of the vestry were necessary to allow its smoke to escape. In John 21:9 the word is used for a cooking fire at Khirbet Mazin.
First, First One
In a hierarchy in which the supreme leader was numbered zero, the next after him was "the first". Peter as the deputy was the "first" to Jesus, Matthew 10:2. Luke representing Jesus the Word was a "first", Acts 1:1. In John 19:32 Simon Magus as both a Michael and Gabriel. Luke 14:18 the David as the first after the priest. Fem. prōtē Matthew 27:64, Helena as deputy to Simon Magus. As a 1 after a 0, the prōtos acted at the minute or the hour after the 0 or main division. John 20: 4,8. To prōton, one hour after 3-3 time point, 4:00 pm John 18:13; John 19:39.
A name given to James brother of Jesus by those who believed that he was the legitimate David. Revelation 1:5.
Tithes paid by proselytes . Revelation 14:4
When the fish became the emblem of Christians in Rome, it was thought that it was derived from the fact that the letters could be seen as the initials of titles of Jesus. But it had had a much more practical origin. Of the three kinds of hierarchically graded Gentiles in the Noah's ark imagery, Shem (1) Ham (2) and Japheth (3) , the men of Shem were likened to the animals brought into the ark, whereas the despised westerners Ham and Japheth were likened to the fish that must have been caught out of the ark to feed those on the boat. This was especially the case because these Gentiles had money that they gave to the mission, "feeding" it. The superior "fish", 2, was the head of "Ham" , a man named Marsyas who adopted the name Titus, a freedman of Agrippa who raised money for him ( Antiquities 18, 155). The inferior one was Luke-Cornelius of Acts 10, a distinguished man in the court of Agrippa II, mentioned in the letter of Claudius (Antiquities.20, 14). "To catch fish" was to be a missionary recruiting this kind of Gentile, the task of Peter, the "Noah" for Agrippa. When he was promised that he would "catch men" (Mark 1:17) it meant that he would give these Gentiles the grades of full initiation in the court of Agrippa, not leaving them in the pre-initiate grades as previously.
An oil lamp, the flame of which was used for lighting the fire.Luke 16:24, Revelation 1:14; 19:12.
In Old Testament times there were cities of refuge to which a man could flee who might have been unjustly accused of a crime (Joshua 20). Sanctuaries outside the city had the same purpose, giving rise to the concept of seeking sanctuary.The court in the north part of the Qumran vestry, figure 9B, had such a purpose. A man who may or may not have been a criminal was given a fair trial there by the priests, near to the furnace which was a reminder of the fire of judgement. Simon Magus and Jesus were tried here by the Jewish priests. A man who went to the court in other capacities could be said to "flee" there (Mark 14:50). Revelation 12:6, Mary now accepted for ministry was appointed to the substitute sanctuary at Mird-Hyrcania.
Common bread, not sacred, eaten by married men simply to satisfy hunger. Each loaf shared between two at a table of married men or their equivalents in grade was called "flesh". Revelation 17:16; Revelation 19:18,21.
Act as a servant of the Eagle, the western Living Creature, as one of the hierarchy of “birds”:dove, raven,. sparrow, cock-hen. Revelation 12:14
Be an acolyte, a deacon who follows a bishop like "sheep" (John 10:27; 20:20). Or to be a priest who was preceded by an acolyte as his herald, in a priestly procession (John 21:19 with RLR, Acts 12:8 with RLR).
The word also means "luxury". Revelation 18:3, the luxury supplied by Titus to his mistress Bernice.
Non-sacred food for ordinary eating, Luke 24:41. In 1 Corinthians 8:4 brōsis, pagan meat sacrificed to idols.
The common meal of Therapeuts. Acts 9:19. Verb in Acts 13:18.
The common food at the table of married persons, for hunger only, not the sacred food of a celibate meal. Mark 6:42, Acts 7:11.
A play on Hebrew letters to indicate the class and grade of a person. Gimel (class C), Resh (grade 2, the grade of entry to the sanctuary). "Not for", ou gar in Acts 2:15 means a non-Nazirite, one who drinks wine.
bia, baiaios, parabiazomai
Luke 24:29, Acts 2:2; 16:15. Imposition of the ascetic discipline of the Therapeuts.
Row 3 in the north vestry, the row before the 2 cubits of the court when coming up from the south. Mark 14:68.
As for all parts of the body, an object worn or placed at the part. The phylactery containing minute copies of the Law was worn by Jews in the center of the forehead. Numerous phylacteries were found at Qumran. In Revelation 22:4 the term shows that the wearer was Jewish.
According to CD 4:15-19 , the three "nets of Belial" in which sinners were caught were fornication, riches, and defilement of the temple. The gospels and Revelation illustrate the application of this list. A man guilty of "riches" was reduced to grade 11; a Gentile who did not respect the Jerusalem temple was placed at grade 12, and a man or woman guilty of fornication by the strict ascetic standards went down to grade 13. The number 13 is given in the form "the 1 of the 12" or "the 1 out of the 12" in the gospels. Thomas Herod was a number 13 because he was a sodomite (John 20:24) Judas Iscariot was a number 13 because of his treachery (Mark 14:10). In the subsequent period the term was applied to Poppea the mistress of Nero, who was in charge of Jewish affairs in the Roman court but was not, at first, married to him, Revelation 14:8. Bernice because of her incest with her brother Agrippa, Revelation 17:2; 19:2. Titus because of his immoral relationship with Bernice in Revelation 18:3.
Following the raising of the middle floor of the cathedral to make it a monastery by adding walls, the foundations of the front wall rested on a row behind row 13. Row 13 continued as the seating for congregation leaders. They were married men who worked for a living and gave gifts of money to support the Christian monastery, which did not charge fees. The married men were therefore the foundation on which the monastery rested. Revelation 21:14.
Square, like the courts in the Temple Scroll plan. Revelation 21:16.
Free from care
Matthew 28:14. Not punished by Agrippa, with whom were associated the "cares" (merimnoi) of the aiōn (Agrippa's calendar) in Mark 4:19.
A pilgrim, one who was not part of the celibate Agape meal for the Beloved, but only a friend. The distinction is made clear in John 21:1-17, Peter insisting that he was only a "friend", a married pilgrim. Luke 15:29, the uncircumcised Gentile of Asher was equal to the "friend", plu. rep. This group was led by Peter, James and John in the gospel period.
Pseudonym for Simon Gioras, who gained leadership in the war in September 68 AD, a season for the 2nd plague, that of frogs, in one of the sets of plagues. Revelation 16:13.
At the other limit of a place or time. Apo tou mnēmeiou the west half-door as opposed to the east half-door of the caves, Mark 16:8, Luke 24:9. With "Arimathea", the other places in the Qumran area that were the limit for Mird-Hyrcania. Used also with time. Matthew 27:15 "from a 6th hour", the true 3 pm, the other limit of the true noon. In John 21:2, Nathanael apo Cana of Galilee,at Mazin as the limit of Ain Feshkha, where "Cana" was the room for the congregation. Acts 26:4 September 29 AD, the other equinox after March 29 AD, the "beginning" of the gospel period.
The "fruit of the Vineyard" consisted of the fees paid by Jewish villagers in Rome, their normal payments under the rules of Atonement. They were collected in Agrippa's house and brought back to the homeland for the expenses of the mission , as shown in the parable of the Vineyard Mark 12:1-9. Acts 2:30 shows that such money was brought back from Rome, concealed in a bag attached to the loincloth, helping Agrippa regain the monarchy. On a wall at Ain Feshkha a hoard of oxidized coins of Agrippa II was found, with the imprint of the bag in which they were kept preserved in the encrustation of the oxide. (R.de Vaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, p.67)
complete a set of times. Acts 2:1, the second occurrence of Pentecost completed the season.
Revelation 9:2. Photo DDD. Originally the actual furnace in Loc 119 at Qumran, used as a cooking fire, so heated up to be very hot. Being placed in the row above the 2 cubits of the court in the vestry, in its rows 1 and 2, the furnace was used as a reminder of hellfire for prisoners being tried in the court.It was the “unquenchable fire” of Mark 9:44 in some texts, alluding to Exodus 3:2, because it was always alight, either with smouldering coals or stirred up for cooking,
A Roman governor or similar authority, representing the emperor called Wrath. In Revelation 14:10 the governor Felix. Cestius Roman governor at the outbreak of war, Revelation 16:19. Titus son of Vespasian in Revelation 19:15. In Revelation 11:18 Prince Agrippa appointed proconsul on Cyprus, so acting as a deputy to the Wrath, the Roman emperor. Revelation 12:17 Caiaphas appointed local governor to represent Rome. In Revelation 6:17 Gallio the Roman governor of Achaia.
Sing.with article and name Jesus as the bishop of Galilee when a dynast outside for marriage, Matthew 26:69. Judas the Galilean in the role at an earlier period, Acts 5:37. Without article, Peter acting for Jesus, Mark 14:70. Plu.rep. Theudas as a Pharisee militant, John 4:45, Luke 13:1. "These Galileans" Luke 13:1 Theudas as deputy abbot, Sadducee. Luke 13:1 "All Galileans" Antipas as tetrarch of Galilee. Acts 1:11, Peter as a married layman acting as bishop after Jesus had returned to the monastery.
The term originally meant the position where the king stood, in the porch outside the substitute sanctuary (locs 111, 113, 109) when he came to meet with pilgrims at new moons according to Ezekiel 46:2-3. Most of the pilgrims, the village class, came from Galilee, and the king himself as a dynast outside for marriage lived in Galilee. The porch of the sanctuary was of a lesser degree of holiness. Hence the word "Galilee" retained the meaning "porch" in Christian usage. After the earthquake of 31 BC when the substitute sanctuary became defiled , the position for the king was moved to the north pillar base outside the vestry. When the king, the David, stood here in his role to villagers, it was called "Galilee"(Mark 15:41). Since the king as an outside dynast was bishop of the literal Galilee and took the name with him wherever he went, "Galilee" was used also of Ain Feshkha, the marriage house for dynasts to which he went when he first left the monastery for his period of married life (Mark 1:14; 16:7, Luke 2:4, Matthew 28:10, Acts 9:31.). He stayed here whenever he was at the grade of an outside dynast, including on the day after the crucifixion (Matthew 28:16 ). With eis, "at", "Galilee" always means Ain Feshkha. The name was applied at the caves, for the top step west to which the dynast came before descending even further into "uncleanness", and on which he stood after he came out of the latrine. The step is called "Galilee" in Luke 23:55.
In Matthew 27:34 Jesus at the outset of the crucifixion was offered wine mixed with cholē(gall) but he did not drink it. Psalms 68:22 LXX (MT 69:22) reads "They gave me cholē for food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar (oxos) to drink." RSV translates cholē as "poison", as is required by the sense. In the Gospel of Peter 5.16 Jesus was offered "gall with vinegar" just before his final cry of dereliction. This is the evidence that is implied by the canonical gospels, that the drink that Jesus was offered at 3:05 pm contained poison among other ingredients. The rescue plan of Antipas had devised this scheme for making Jesus appear to be dead, together with the purpose of supplying the antidote, as part of his scheme for rescuing Simon Magus.
The Essene Gate in Jerusalem, to which the Essenes were at first expelled, was thought of as the place where they were "cursed", sent out like Adam from the garden of Eden. However, on the Mount of Olives east of Mount Zion the land was fertile due to the less steep slope, and it was possible to have a garden there, where the Gethsemane church is now. The building on the middle level was used as a hermitage, and hermits could grow gardens around their isolated huts. Of the classes of Gentiles, proselytes lived like full monastics, while men like John Mark lived like dynasts (later to lead Christian monasteries). They could be treated positively and understood as having the status of Adam, when the world was believed to have been universal before race divisions. They were then taught by the David in his role as "the new Adam", in innocence within the garden. Their school was attached to the hermitage, literally in a garden as Greek philosophy was often discussed in a garden. As the hermitage was equivalent to the outer hall at Qumran (loc 77), a part of that hall was the "garden" to which Jesus and his friends went after the Last Supper (John 18:1). In John 19:41 James doing the work of Jesus acted in the role of Adam, standing at the dungeon door on the east, making it "the Garden" by his presence, while a "cursed" Adam was found at the west door, that of the latrine, corresponding to Hinnom, "Hades",.
Adam over the garden of Eden. James as the representative of the David in John 20:15.
Vestment. Several terms are used, for the vestments for different kinds of priesthood. a)Himation, plu. rep. himatia, a short white garment worn over an ordinary garment,the antecedent of the surplice worn over a cassock. It was the vestment of a dynast, and removed at his defrocking, either because he was going out of the monastery into marriage, or because of disgrace, as at the crucifixion.Its wide loose sleeves were attached to the shoulders by seams, so that when it was laid flat it was in 4 parts, the main part over the body lying north-south, the sleeves towards east and west. Hence the himatia of Jesus could be divided after his defrocking into divisions for the compass points, indicating the geographical divisions of the world mission. (John 19:23). b)Endyma The garment of the Therapeuts, as described by Philo in Contemp.Life 38. In winter they wore a coat of animal skin, Matthew 3:4 of camel skin, Matthew 7:15 of sheepskin. In summer a white linen garment (Matthew 28:3). Since they could marry, the linen garment was worn at weddings, held in summer (Matthew 22:11). c)EsthēsThe splendid robe of a king or his representative. In Acts 12:21 the silver garment worn by Agrippa in the scene described in Ant.19,343-344. In Luke 24:4 the garment of Theudas as a representative of Simon Magus the rival to Agrippa. The garment of a representative of Agrippa in Acts 10:30. The royal garment put mockingly on Jesus Luke 23:11. Esthēsis the summer garment of Theudas in Acts 1:10 when on the prayer platform.
plu. rep. himatia, a short white garment worn over an ordinary garment,the antecedent of the surplice worn over a cassock. It was the vestment of a dynast, and removed at his defrocking, either because he was going out of the monastery into marriage, or because of disgrace, as at the crucifixion.Its wide loose sleeves were attached to the shoulders by seams, so that when it was laid flat it was in 4 parts, the main part over the body lying north-south, the sleeves towards east and west. Hence the himatia of Jesus could be divided after his defrocking into divisions for the compass points, indicating the geographical divisions of the world mission. (John 13:4,12; 19:2,5,23,24. Mark 5:20,24. Luke 22:36; 23:34. Matthew 26:65; 27:31,35.)
The splendid robe of a king or his representative. In Acts 12:21 the silver garment worn by Agrippa in the scene described in Ant.19,343-344. In Luke 24:4 the garment of Theudas as a representative of Simon Magus the rival to Agrippa. The garment of a representative of Agrippa in Acts 10:30. The royal garment put mockingly on Jesus, Luke 23:11. Esthēs the summer garment of Theudas in Acts 1:10 when on the prayer platform.
The garment of the Therapeuts, as described by Philo in Contemplative Life 38. In winter they wore a coat of animal skin, Matthew 3:4 of camel skin. Matthew 7:15 of sheepskin. In summer a white linen garment (Matthew 28:3). Since they could marry, the linen garment was worn at weddings, held in summer (Matthew 22:11).
The plan for gates of the Temple Scroll, intended for the literal Jerusalem, had been based on a 12x 12 cubit square, the dimensions multiplied into real distances for the three planned temple courts. The greatly expanded ideal area was to be 12000 x 12000 stadia (Revelation 21:16). In the meantime, the 12 x 12 cubit space of the north vestry acted as a microcosm. The 12 gates were visualized at 3 cubit intervals, each of them 2 cubits, their lower limit on a multiple of 3. For the east wall of the square, the actual east door of the vestry, on rows 5 and 6, represented the central gate in the eastern wall, the gate of Levi. Above it on rows 2 and 3 the north-eastern gate of Simeon was supposed, and below it the south-eastern gate of Judah on rows 8 and 9. The word for each of these gates was pylōn, as shown in Revelation 21:12,15. In Matthew 26:71 the word pylōn is used for row 3, the lower limit of the gate of Simeon. When Peter went eis ton pylōna he went to row 2, the row above (eis ) row 3, the pylōn.
A name for the Herod as a prince, in his role of the "Noah" conducting the boat drama of initiation for Gentiles of the order of Dan. In sing. ethnos, for proselytes or celibates In plural ethnē, for the uncircumcised. In Acts 13:19 Herod the Great as a boy. In the gospel period, Agrippa I before he became king. In Acts, the young prince Agrippa, to whom Paul was tutor. In Revelation 14:8, All the Gentiles, Agrippa II as the Noah, head of the sea mission to Gentiles. His work was carried out by the head of Japheth in Rome. In Revelation 21:24 a head of Japheth in Britain, the far west after Rome became central.
The word Gethsemane is a combination of two Hebrew words, gath wine-press, and shemen olive-oil. Since the pilgrim leaders were given wine at initiation, yet belonged to the lay class of "oil", the name "wine-press-oil", Gethsemane, applied to them. The leaders sat on row 13 of the congregation annexe, associated with seed, plants and growth. The name was used for that row. Mark 14:32
Put on the sash or belt worn outside the sanctuary. John 13:4 with "Himself", Jesus put it on Simon Magus.
To give a promotion or benefit to Gentiles without requiring payment of an initiation or promotion fee. Acts 2:19. Jonathan Annas with Sadducees gave freely, and so was given the name Nathanael (=Jonathan and Dositheus meaning "Gift of God"), whereas Simon Magus demanded payment, and was called Zebedee (Hebrew Zabdi, "my gift').
Give birth to
Give symbolic birth, as a mother at the Bar Mitzvah of her 12 year old son.Luke 2:6, Revelation 12:5. Used also for a male who initiates a teknon, “child”. Revelation 12:4,5.
Act as a levite, one who stood beside a priest and gave him what he needed. Judas Iscariot as the Raphael to Jesus, Mark 14:18.
A mirror. In Revelation 4:6, a mirror forming part of a triptych for reflecting light at night. A glass panel in the roof to let in the light. In Revelation 15:2 above the seat of Bernice the Moon in her one-story house, letting in the moonlight at midnight. It corresponded to the Glory for the sun at noon in the cathedral. In Revelation 21:18,21 the high glass roof of the Vatican building after it became a Christian monastery.
While celibate Essenes wore white vestments (Jewish War 2, 123) married men who had taken a Nazirite vow wore black. They were undertaking periods of spiritual retreat away from their families, and were as if in mourning. Nazirites did not drink wine (Numbers 6:1-4), so at the Last Supper, while ordinary village initiates such as Peter drank fermented wine, the Gentile James Niceta, following the Nazirite discipline, abstained at 7:05 pm, the time or the wine, being "gloomy". Mark 10:22; 14:19; 22:45, Matthew 26:22,37.
To wear black, the garment of a Nazirite, a married man taking temporary retreats for prayer, not a monastic wearing white linen robes. Luke 24:17.
The term alludes to the Moses story Exodus 34:29-35. The seat of the communal "Moses" was called the Glory. This was the seat in the center of row 7, the next row down from the seats on row 6 for the priest and levite. A bishop third below the priest and levite sat here. Jesus sat here as the third when he was a dynast out in the world, so "we beheld his Glory", John 1:14. the terms Kingdom , Power and Glory refer to the three positions, Power for the priest, Kingdom for the king/levite as celibate, Glory for the third sitting in front of them. The same three were called Father (Priest), Son (king celibate) and the Holy Spirit, (to) hagion pneuma. At the Last Supper, after 9 pm, Jonathan Annas the Father and Jesus the Son moved forward from row 6 to row 7, so were "glorified" (John 13:31). But to "glorify God" also meant to bring the Annas priest down in status, from row 6 as priest to row 7 where he was equal to a village bishop. This is the meaning in Mark 2:12, Luke 23:47. It referred to a Sadducee priest, not a Pharisee, Acts 7:2. On the Qumran prayer platform at noon, the priests were seen praying at the high point of the sun, so the congregation below on row 7 saw their Glory. In a cathedral, which had an enclosed upper storey, the light from the glass panel high above shone down to row 7 of the middle floor when the cover over the center of upper row 7 was removed at noon. The “Moses”, the Chief Therapeut, read from the Law at the noon meal. Revelation 4:11.
To go up via steps to a position at the table, John 20:17; 21:11, Acts 1:13; 2:34.
The goad used to force a balking animal. Plu.rep. a priest's staff. In Acts 26:14 Saul at grade 8, that of an "ox" in the hierarchy of Beasts, is said to resist priestly authority.
The title used for himself by an Annas priest, representing God. "God" always has the meaning of a priest in the pesher. It was held even by monotheistic Jews , especially in the Diaspora under Hellenistic influence, that the high priest was above ordinary humanity (Philo, On Dreams 2, 188-189). With the article, it refers to his highest grade; without the article, his grade when he was "in the body", at grade 3 in the village (John 20:17). The term theos was applied to Jesus in John 1:1. He was called a god, theos, on Malta (Acts 28:6 by RLR). Agrippa I was hailed as a god, Acts 12:22. Plu. rep. gods, Acts 7:40. In the Qumran Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, substitute priests in the Diaspora are called "gods" and "priests" in the Holy of Holies. 4Q400.
In Revelation 20:8, the names Gog and Magog are used for enemies. The names are taken from Ezekiel 38 and 39, where they do mean hostile nations. But the word games of Revelation have found in them names for their own schismatic rivals, the house of Bernice. By omitting the vowels, as was normal for Hebrew, they read G-G and M-G-G, the former for two kinds of graduates class C (Gimel), an archbishop and a cardinal, the latter for Bernice adding the letter M for a low grade baptizand.
The sign of being a full priest, in the priestly hierarchy of gold, silver and precious stones, for the equals of Michael, Gabriel and Sariel. The first of the list of grades in Revelation 18:12.
Pertaining to the royal Herod, against the Magians called kakos, "bad". (Mark 14:21, Matthew 26:24, Acts 27:8)
The three stages of a dynast were: holy hagios, a bishop; righteous dikaios, a presbyter; good agathos, a deacon. In Mark 10:18, Nemo, a deacon acolyte, is called agathos. In Luke 23:50 James-Joseph when a Nemo was agathos.
act at the December pentecontad, the season when dynasts had sex, so a season of joy. Christmas retained the association. The Magians as claimants to the position kept the Julian calendar, with December-January as the main feast. Acts 2:26,28.
A member of the Herodian house. Jacob-Heli Luke 2:25. Apollos, in apposition, Acts 22:1.
euangelizomai (verb), euangelion (noun) A word meaning "good news". Verb. To read in a service from the new Christian scripture, one of the four gospels. The verb gives a date, New Year's Day, because the four Christian gospels were read publicly at services on this day. Acts 5:42, Revelation 10:7; 14:6. Noun A book intended as a replacement for the laws of Moses which were in 5 books. Since it was believed that scripture had a pesher, five canonical books were written with a pesher, the four gospels and Acts. In Revelation 14:6 it is said that there was another gospel, not the canonical ones, read at midnight on New Year's day, being the "good news" of the foundation of Christianity by the party of the writers of Revelation. It was a rival to the gospels, and was rejected by the Rome Christian party, so was not included in Codex Vaticanus.
A Roman governor who was an initiate of the ascetic mission. This was the case with Pilate (Matthew 27:2) and Felix (Acts 23:24). For a Roman governor who was not an initiate the verb hegemoneuo is used, not hēgemonai (Qurinius in Luke 2:2).
A term for the David crown prince, the sign of the divine gift of continuation of the dynasty (Luke 2:52, Revelation 22:21).
A proselyte or Gentile of Asher. Mark 4:28, Revelation 8:7.
Great, Great One
Term for the king, the Great One, as a lay bishop, or a Kohath, a levitical bishop equal to a lay bishop, Acts 26:22. Great things, megaleia, Acts 2:11, Luke 14:16, matters pertaining to a king but not to priests. As an adjective, royal but not priestly. Acts 7:11. A prince was consequently a "little one", Mark 15:40.
Since a "Great One" megas was a king and lay bishop grade 4, so a "Greater One" was a grade above, grade 3 that of a graduate. The term is used for Agrippa in Luke 22:24,25,26,27.
In the Greek language. Revelation 9:11.
Color for the east, the spring season Revelation 8:7. In Revelation 6:8. green horse translated pale to avoid absurdity, but meaning the horse and horseman assigned to the eastern direction of the world.
Give the form of greeting used between lay members, as opposed to the kiss of levitical ministers. Mark 15:18
In the congregation annexe loc 86 the seat on row 13 center west was the "field" as opposed to the "garden", being for the worker Adam when sent out of Eden. It represented the Diaspora, the mission-field. The word "Earth" applied to the whole row, but since it had further meanings the word "ground", chamai was introduced to mean the "soil" that Adam had to work, for the labor of mission in the Diaspora. Its position on row 13 west center is shown in John 18:6. In John 9: 6 the "blind man" was "healed" when Jesus took chamai, spat on it, made clay, and put it on his "eyes". The meaning is that in distant places such as Rome there were no immersion cisterns, and the spit of a holy man had to replace holy water. The missionary held a lamp with a shutter that was kept closed by a clay seal, but opened at night for initiates to read scripture, hence initiates "saw the light".
Acts 22:7, the part of row 13 that was not in the central 2 cubits, for which the word "Earth" is used.
Theudas as the superior guard, on the hour. Matthew 27:65; 28:11.
The place for a guest at the meal-table in the monastic vestry,in one of the two seats in the six at the table that were placed at the corners of the table, beside the four seats in the center for the permanent ministers. Mark 14:14, Luke 2:7.
Answerable, accountable to. Mark 14:64, Annas was shown to have been in the party of Simon Magus, "Death".
A person acting in a role that was not their personal one. An epitropos was a procurator, acting on behalf of the emperor. Acts 1:11.
The name used in the parable of the Rich Man in Luke 16:23 for the latrine chamber in cave 8Q. It reflected Gehenna, the valley of Hinnom in Jerusalem where the Essene latrine stood and the rubbish was burnt. The features of Jerusalem were reproduced at Qumran when it was made a counterpart of Jerusalem. The description of Hades in the parable corresponds exactly to the lower chamber in 8Q. The Rich Man (James the brother of Jesus in all occurrences) spoke across a "chasm" (v.26) to "Abraham" (the current Pope) and "Lazarus", Simon Magus who at that time was the deputy. As shown in photo F the grand cave 4Q ends a long projection of land, divided by a chasm from the southern esplanade. It is quite possible to speak across the chasm and be heard. The peak down from the end of the esplanade containing cave 8Q on its western side, gave a natural parallel, although a less prominent one, to 4Q. Cave 4Q would have been the burial and excommunication cave for the high priest-Pope and his levite, while caves 7Q and 8Q attached to the peak served the same purpose for the king and prince. It may be noted that at Qumran the "three nets of Belial" were fornication, riches, and defilement of the temple (CD 4:15-19 ), so undue attachment to the mission property, of which James was accused, was punishable in this "Hades".
Hail, the 7th plague in each row of 7 plagues. See Tables of Plagues. Hailstones, a name for Bernicianus the son of Bernice , appearing January 1, 70 AD, as the 7th of the 10 Egyptian plagues, that of hail. In the light of the coming fall of Jerusalem, the name meant that the 3 worse seasonal "plagues" of the 10 plagues were to follow during the year 70 AD. Revelation 16:21.
As with all parts of the body, an object placed or worn at the part. A head cloth covering the hair. For a male following the Zadokite rule for short hair (Ezekiel 44:20) the cloth came down to the ears (Revelation 9:8a) For a female, a nun with long hair (1 Corinthians 11:5-6), a veil as long as her hair (Revelation 9:8b). Celibate women of the Therapeuts wore veils the same length as their hair which could be put over their faces like Moses when he was not in the presence of God (Exodus 34:34-35). It meant that women could not be in the presence of God.
As with all parts of the body, an object at that part. Sing. the object on the east side, plu.rep. on the west. The hands of the Heavenly Man came to row 13. The objects placed in these positions, or at the center to which the hands could come in, were plates. On the east side, the "hand" was the paten for the sacred bread in the form given to Jewish ascetics, the "poor". Gifts for them could be placed on it. On the west side, the "hands" meant the collection plate for freewill money gifts. It contrasted with the "feet", the jar for welfare tithes required by a system of taxation, not gifts. One of Jesus' reforms was to forbid fixed initiation and promotion fees, but to allow money gifts for the expenses of the mission. His rules are given through the pesher of John 20:20, 27.
The container given to a missionary to Gentiles, for gifts of money in lieu of fees. A 9:17. Paul collected money gifts from the Gentile provinces.
Be hanged in the ordinary sense on the gibbet, without the additional T shaped discipline board. Applied to Judas but not to Simon. Matthew 27:5 Judas could however, be cursed from the ground with the discipline board, Mark 15:32.
Happening ones were proselytes, who were encountered accidentally by the ascetics in the outside world and persuaded to become Jewish. Luke 24:14, with "All" and "these ones", Thomas as the chief teacher of proselytes.
Literal harp, lyre-harp, ( cither) played by Thomas Herod as head of the orchestra on row 5 of the upper floor of a cathedral. Therapeuts used music and choirs in liturgical worship Philo Contemplative Life 80, 83. Revelation 14:2, 5:8.
Reject from fellowship at the sacred meal. Revelation 2:6.
To have a deputy one grade below, or have an object as possession.
Be at the opposite extreme, the apo "from". Luke 15:20b, at Mird-Hyrcania the opposite to Qumran, when the sanctuary had been transferred.
as an independent pronoun, not contained in the verb. Nominative only. The word functions as a noun, a new subject, meaning an important person, a leader. Luke 24:15, Acts 2:34, Jesus. Plu. rep. They, a leader, nominative only.
An object worn on the head. The headband of a graduate, bearing the Hebrew letter for his grade. In Mark 6:25, the papal headband of the Baptist, not his literal head, brought on a plate to show that the papacy was vacant. On the cross, the headband of Jesus under a Roman style garland as worn by the emperors, mocking his political aims.
A strip of cloth 2 cubits (1 yard) long used for the turban of priests, wound round as in Ezekiel 44:18. Money could be concealed in the turban. It was used by Magians to wrap the common property of Gentile permanent celibates led by John Mark. At Qumran their representative money was concealed in the unused pit under SL12. Lazarus-Simon Magus wore the headcloth when coming out of his excommunication cave, John 11:44. When Simon refused to send the mission income back to Judea he kept it in Rome wrapped in a soudarion, (Luke 19:20), and buried it in the ground (Matthew 25:18). The soudarion left behind in the hospital chamber was given to John Mark, John 20:7.
Promote, restore from demotion. Luke 22:51.
Act as a Therapeut, of the abbey class permitted to marry. Revelation 13:3.
In John 5:6,9 the man who by-passed the pool - a baptismal cistern at Qumran - was said to be "healthy". This was the attitude of non-monastics, who said that the frequent washings of monastics must be a sign that they were sick. In Luke 15:27 the Fatted Calf Archelaus (by RLR) had been received "healthy" by the abbot. Archelaus had been living at Qumran, bathing in the cisterns and making use of the money stored there. Ananus had had him dismissed from Qumran and its property
In a cathedral, the recorder in the west guest place on row 4 of the upper floor hears sound coming up the NW radius from the edge of the upper floor.
A person hearing teaching. Plu.rep. Acts 9:21. A person being taught words of a prayer by another man standing beside him. A Gentile stood west center beside his teacher, Mark 4:15. On the west side he represented "ears", as plu.rep. means the west or left side of the body. "He who has ears to hear, let him hear" means let a Gentile be taught the words, and the pesher of the words, Mark 4:9.
In the imagery of the Heavenly Man, the position in the upper west center of row 10 was the "heart". It was the seat of a lay bishop. Acts 2:26, a woman as a lay bishop. Acts 2:26.
A person in the position of the Zadokite, originally on the prayer platform at Qumran (Luke 24:52, Acts 1:10; 1:11 ), or on the upper floor of a tower building at the "throne". He may bring "Heaven" with him to related places, Acts 2:2. The Zadokite claimant was either Simon Magus as Pope, or Agrippa I. The term is used in Matthew 28:2 for the place at the dungeon door, for Simon's dramatic emergence. Luke 18:13, Acts 2:19 used for Agrippa. Plu.rep. the place of the David on the west beside the Zadokite, Acts 2:34. "Heavenly", ouranios Acts 26:19 is used for another priest in the same place, the abbot, not claiming to be the Zadokite. Adj. "heavenly", ouranios, pertaining to a replacement for the Zadokite who did not claim to be a monastic "Heaven", Ananus the abbot Luke 2:13. In a cathedral, which was a house in the Diaspora, Heaven was the upper floor of the house, at its edge on row 7. The opening of the 2 cubit center between noon and 3 pm each day was the time when “Heaven opened”. Singular east center, plural west center of row 7.
Aramaic, closely related to Hebrew. John 19:13,17,20; 20:16.
According to Pirke Aboth, it was a duty to "make a hedge around the Torah". Celibate Gentiles of Dan studied the Law in Hebrew, so made the Hedge. They are grouped with the Way, meaning Gentiles of Asher, in Luke 14:23.
The sandal-strap around the heel of an outside worker. John 13:18, "lift up the heel upon", make into an outside worker missionary. Also an allusion to Adam as an outside worker in Genesis 3:15.
The 2 x 2 cubit gate at the communion rail. Revelation 21:16.
A member of the Diaspora party that used Greek in synagogue worship. Plu. rep. Jonathan Annas as the Sadducee priestly leader of the party. Acts 6:1; 9:29; 11:20.
Be a marriage partner to. Romans 16:2. Revelation 12:16.
The eastern form of the ascetic mission. John 18:36; 14:31. When the two central figures, the Priest and the King, formed a pair at the center, the King on the left and the Priest on the right, the Priest was east to the King's west. The levite, described as "out of the right", on his eastern side, was also east, so the word enteuthen applied to both Priest and levite. This usage was drawn on in John 19:18 and parallels to disguise the fact that Jesus was on the western gibbet. Enteuthen applied only to the gibbets of Simon and Judas.
A specific position. As shown in Epistle James 2:3 it is a position in the synagogue. It refers to the western part of an east-west synagogue, where the seats for the congregation were placed. In the abbey in the outer hall the doorway on row 12 represented the synagogue, which was understood as the stage between the village houses and the abbey. "Here" meant row 12 center west in the doorway, Mark 14:32. Also the west cave, Luke 24:6.
The name “Herod” always means a claimant to the status of a royal Herod. a) Herod the Great (37-4 BC) (Matthew 2:1-22). b)Agrippa I in 31 AD, planning to reclaim the monarchy(Mark 6 :14:22) . Agrippa I in 33 AD (Luke 23:7-15). Agrippa I , now king in March 44 AD (Acts 12:1). c) Agrippa II to be the successor in late 44 AD (Acts 13:1). On the terms “Herod the tetrarch” in Luke 3:1, 19 and Acts 13:1. See Biographies section.
A title of the Chief Woman as a priestess, Bernice in Revelation 19:7. The feminine equivalent of Himself, a Magus.
The basement of the cathedral, behind its front steps, was the place for “unclean”,hidden activities, such as the teaching of Gentiles. It came to be called the crypt. In a Christian cathedral it was the place for tombs of Popes. Revelation 2:17.
A celibate leader on the top step of the monastery, taking communion. Revelation 21:10,12.
As the "Mountains" (plu. rep.) means Agrippa in his Rome house, the "Hills" (plu. rep.) means the lesser Herod Antipas in his Rome house.Luke 23:30.
Sing. Simon Magus was called Himself, a term for a great authority to avoid using his name. To "deny Himself" in Mark 8:34 means to separate from Simon Magus. In John 13:4 Himself at the Last Supper is Simon. In Luke 24:12 Peter came to the cubit in front of Himself, Simon. In Luke 24:27 the pesher of the Old Testament Writings is found to refer to Simon. In John 21:1, 7 Simon with Jesus. In Acts 1:3, Simon claiming the papacy at Qumran. Acts 5:36 the Magus preceding Simon, Acts 28:16 Atomus the Herodian Magus. Plu.rep. heautoi Antipas Herod as representing Simon.Mark 4:17, Fem.sing. the head of Asher, Anna in Acts 7:21, The wife of the Zadokite, Elizabeth in Luke 1:24. Fem plu. Mary Magdalene Mark 16:3
A missionary who was married and paid a stipend out of the mission funds, at the rate of a denarius a day, just enough for his support. Illustrated in Matthew's parable of the workers in the Vineyard, Matthew 20:1-16. In 1 Corinthians 7:5 Peter and James are said to be on this system, while they "lead about a wife as Sister" - keeping the Essene dynastic rule of separation. They contrasted with "slaves", who did not receive the stipend, either because they were of levitical status receiving tithes, or married men earning a living by working at a job.
Remain attached. Embrace, as a sign of loyalty to a leader, John 20:23, Acts 2:24. In Luke 24:16 the shutter of the oil lamp, opened when it was dark to let the flame inside shine out, remained closed when it was not dark.
Holy, Holy One
The word alone means a non-priestly celibate, the highest state for the David. The three possible states for him were hagios, dikaios, agathos, "holy", "righteous", "good". In plu.rep. the "saints" to whom some of Paul's letters were addressed were Christian monastics in their institutions. With "spirit" the word with different uses of the article means a celibate bishop in an abbey of the Therapeuts. A holy place was one having the holiness of the Holy House of the sanctuary. It was brought down to the Earth, row 13, under the liberal Sadducee rule. Acts 7:33.
Allusion to thePromised Land imagery of milk and honey (Deuteronomy 11:9). Ascetic teaching regarded as a preparation for ministry. Revelation 10:9.10.
The crown prince, giving hope for the continuation of a dynasty. Acts 2:26; 26:7. Both the Herods and the Davids.
The emblem of the Calf, one of the 4 Living Creatures of the chariot vision of Ezekiel 1. The Calf had the position of a Raphael, an archbishop grade 3, a grade above the Lion of the same set, a bishop grade 4. Horn 10 in Revelation 17:3 was the archbishop of Rome, when still called province 10. Revelation 12:3; 17:3,7.
A Diaspora Annas priest , a Phanuel treated as a priest, who rode a horse to visit the mission centers of the Diaspora at the different seasons. The four colored horses of Revelation 6:1-8 were the Annas priests for the different seasons, the necks of the horses decked with the color for the successive season - white for summer, red for autumn, black for winter, green (translated "pale" for reasons of credibility) for spring. The Annas priest wore a vestment of the same color. In Revelation 19:11, white for summer.
The summer solstice season, the opposite of the winter solstice season. Revelation 3:16.
The significant hour at which a fulfillment of prophecy was expected. (John 13:1; 19:14. Matthew 26:45,55. Mark 14:35,37; 14:41. Luke 22:14; 23:44.)
The reproduction of the Holy House of the sanctuary, outside the Holy of Holies, where the table for the bread of the Presence was kept (Exodus 26:35). Since the holy bread was eaten in the vestry, its parts were designated by the same terms. The north part of the vestry for the holy table of celibates was called the oikos, (House masc.) the south called the oikia(house fem.) for the common table of the congregation, including row 12. The counterparts in an abbey used the terms, oikia being the annexe to the outer hall, the "pantry", including the doorway leading into it, Acts 9:11,17.
The world-wide Herodian mission field, divided into provinces.
Name for a penitent, playing on the Hebrew word for "how", eika. It was the opening word of the book of Lamentations, so was used for one who lamented the past. Used in either the form hopōs, adding an article (Acts 9:2; 9:24), or pōs without article. In the latter case it is used as a noun in Acts 9:27, meaning Saul as a penitent in his renunciation of nationalism.
In the sense of adversative "but", an alternative leader or doctrine. Luke 22:21,42; 23:28.
The number of Essenes forming a voting body, Josephus Jewish War 2, 145. In John 21:11, the 153 "fish" caught gives the information to those who knew the monastic system that Titus, the head of Ham Gentiles, belonged to an Essene monastery in the east. On the model of Qumran, such a monastery held 100 undergraduates in 4 grades of 25 each and 50 novices in 2 further grades of 25 each The monastery was controlled by the 3 priests (1QS 8:1) Michael (Zadokite), Gabriel (Abiathar), Sariel (Levi). In Acts 1:15, the 100 of the 120 were the ordinary pilgrims, with 20 leaders.
Go without food during the fasting periods required at the intercalations of the solar calendar. Revelation 7:16.
A man in the married state. Revelation 21:2.
Blue, the color for the third grade of priesthood, scarlet, purple, and blue, (Exodus 26:1) Revelation 9:17.
(sing.) The Therapeuts according to Philo Contemplative Life 80 sang hymns, new compositions. These were characterisic of their abbeys, but not of monastics who practiced silence. The abbey session at the Last Supper closed with the singing of a hymn led by Antipas the married man. Mark 14:26.
as subject of verb in narrative. As "we" in narrative means the eunuch of Jesus, and "you" in narrative means James Niceta, "I" in narrative is used for Luke before he became "we" in the later part of Acts, in John 21:25 and Acts 1:4. Luke-Cornelius was a member of the court of the royal Herods, as shown in Ant.20,14 where he was entrusted with delivering Claudius' message about Agrippa II being chosen as the successor. When there was intense conflict between Agrippa and Simon Magus, John Mark as a celibate Gentile with the Magians was replaced by Luke, also of the celibate order of Dan, but on Agrippa's side. Luke was the head of the order of Japheth, Greeks and Romans, and as a distinguished Roman was close to the royal Herods. In John 21:25 speaking as "I" he gave information about Mark's gospel, just produced for the married class. In Acts 1:4 James Niceta, "you" in narrative had heard teaching from Luke, "of me" in narrative. That is, Jesus was sending instruction to James Niceta through Luke in Agrippa's court.
These two words used alone were an allusion to the divine name "Yahweh", interpreted as meaning "I am" in Exodus 3:4. In John 18:5, 6 Jesus used them in this sense to mean that he was an actual priest, no different from the Annas priest, who accepted being addressed as "God". When followed by his name, "Jesus" in Acts 9:5 , he was saying that he was both a priest and a layman.
Combination of kai “and” with “I” ego. Matthew 26:15, Revelation 2:6.
The image of a false god. In Mark 12:16 it means Agrippa I , claiming to be a god. In Revelation, Bernice who claimed to be a priestess, a cardinal, and consequently a Phanuel, one of the "gods" of 4Q400. She is called goddess in Act 19: 27. She was the priestess associated with the Beast Eleazar of Masada in Revelation 19:20, and in Revelation 20:4 the priestess with the Beast Bar Kokhhba. Militant men were devoted to her as their female inspiration
A Greek philosopher, one who recognized pagan gods in Athens, the home of the "unknown god" of Acts 17:23. In Revelation 21:8; 22:15 plu. rep. a member of the militant party at the Dead Sea.
Food bought in the Roman markets, dedicated to the Roman gods. Revelation 2:20.
is used in the sense of "when". Luke 22:67,68
Since apparent questions are statements, ei is used to introduce an actual question. Mark 15:36, 44, Acts 26:8. The question is quoted speech, or an expression of doubt.
If not, Except
Since "if not" may introduce a further person, the two words together mean "and also".
The uses of the two varying forms euthys and eutheōs in the gospels set up an intricate problem , the solution of which reveals differences between celibates and the married class that could amount to contradiction on a minor question.
For Mark's gospel, there were significant minutes for a prayer on both the hour, at :00, and at 5 minutes past the hour, :05. These were the "straight" points, characterizing the "straight" (eutheia) paths of villagers who were taught by the Baptist (Mark 1:3). Mark's gospel recognizes only these minutes. In John, however, there is an intermediate minute, at 3 minutes past the hour, at :03. This was for the intermediate class of celibate or abstinent Gentiles that this gospel prefers. John's gospel uses euthys for the :03 time. (John 13:30). It uses eutheōs for 5 minutes past the hour.
In Mark, however, the meaning of euthys is changed. It allows no :03 times, does not use eutheōs, but uses euthys,only, for the significant minutes. The word is used frequently in the Crucifixion narrative. Mark then adds another distinction between the minutes, using euthys for both kinds. When an event happens at midnight or 6:00 am, the major divisions of times for the solar calendar, it places euthys at these minutes. In Mark 14:43 it means 12:00 midnight, and in Mark 15:1 it means 6:00 am. But when an event happens at the time when villagers started their day, at the intermediate hours 3 am or 3 pm, he places euthys at :05. It refers to the 3:05 am cockcrowing in Mark 14:72.
Luke avoids the vexed question, using euthys only once in his gospel and not in the Crucifixion narrative where it counts. He prefers parachrēma, (denoted here as at once), for 3:05 am (Luke 22:60) and 3:05 pm (Acts 3:7).
Matthew, agreeing often with the celibates of John's gospel, uses eutheōs, where Mark uses euthys, at midnight in Matthew 26:49. He uses eutheōs at 3:05 am (Matthew 26:74) as does John, and at 3:05 pm (Matthew 27:48).
In the same row.
In order that
Play on letters. Under the rules of Therapeuts using the letter-number Nun 50 for their pentecontads.
When the David reached the age of 20 for marriage or when he married and had a son, he was said to "increase". Luke 2:40, Acts 6:7; 7:17; 19:20.
Live in an abbey, "down from the house", at a lower level than the "holy house" of a monastery. Acts 1:18,20; 2:9. In the world circle, the upper half of the 2 cubits for Babylon was for the monastic Gabriel, the lower half for hoi katoikountes tēn Mesopotamian, the abbey attached to the Babylon monastery. Acts 1:19 with "All" and Ierousalēm, the stables on the lower slope of the Mount of Olives attended by Thomas, a monastic levite, who could also be found at the abbey-hermitage. Acts 2:5 the stables also used by Antipas, "Jews", in apposition with andres eulabeis, Thomas. Acts 2:14 Thomas when with Agrippa, at the other Ierousalēm, the synagogue at the Essene Gate attended by proselytes under the authority of Thomas.
An abbey likened to a vineyard, where fermented wine was the sacred drink. Acts 13:19.
(Matthew 27:24) Pilate on receiving the bribe to release Theudas justified his accepting mission money by saying he was a "child", so an "innocent", in the class of all initiated Gentiles. (Matthew 27:4) Judas referring to Gentile initiates who received wine.
A reproduction of the doma, originally the prayer platform of priests, now a row for the laity to pray.
The word is found only in Revelation 21:18, apparently meaning the interior structure of a building. The sense indicates the top of the wall on row 10 of the monastery where communicants knelt. It was on the same level as the platform dōma for the meal table.
Give the translation into Greek, with an additional hermeneutic, the hidden meaning, Mark 15:22,34. Luke 24:27.
A man in the role of a celibate or priest, not seen by ordinary men as he was secluded in a monastery or a tower. Luke 24:31.
Pertaining to Egypt, the “iron furnace” of Deuteronomy 4:20. Revelation 9:9, the chasuble of an Egyptian Chief Therapeut. Revelation 2:27; 12:5 the iron rod of Psalm 2:9, a coronation psalm of the David kings.
A community house for the order of Asher on an island of the Mediterrean, reproduducing their base in Tyre, which was an island called Tyre in a harbor in Phoenicia. Revelation 1:9, Patmos off the coast of Ephesus. Its leaders came to councils in Ephesus. An island where there was a mission center. Acts 27:26. The Herod house on the Tiber Island came to be called Island only, as its Sea element with Bernice had moved to the west bank of the Tiber. Revelation 16:20.
The Messiah of Israel. In the pre-history, Alexander Jannaeus claiming all leadership positions, Acts 13:23. In 1-16 AD, Jacob-Heli as the David, Messiah of Israel, Luke 2:25, Acts 7:23. Jesus when accepted as legitimate and holding this office, Acts 1:6; 9:15. Sons of Israel Matthew 27:9; men of Israel Acts 2:22; 3:12. Agrippa claimed both kinds of Messiahship as Herod the Great had done.
The jewel emblem for the first layman in the congregation Revelation 4:3; 21:19. In this capacity he was placed with a proselyte as the first to receive communion on row 10 on top of the wall, Revelation 21:11. As a married man he worked for a living and earned money, so being I a position to give freewill gifts to support the monastic work.
In the singular form the literal Jerusalem; In plural form Qumran as a reproduction of the literal Jerusalem.
In the singular form the literal Jerusalem, of which Qumran was a reproduction. As shown in Luke 13:34 where the word is repeated, there were two places for which the word was used, both of them the literal Jerusalem. There were two sets of buildings belonging to the ascetics, one on the west side at Mount Zion, the other on the east side on the Mount of Olives. The word Ierousalēm is used for the lowest building on each side, as the beginning of the series. On the west side it means the synagogue just inside the Essene Gate attended by proselytes, on the east side the stables on the Mount of Olives housing the royal mule and used also as a latrine. The associated words show which one is meant.
In plural form Qumran as a reproduction of the literal Jerusalem, the status that was given to it when the Essenes were exiled there in the 2nd century BC. More exactly, the north base, the destination point for pilgrims coming to Qumran.
Sing. A non-monastic member of a Herodian community. In Acts 22:3, Paul as a young man before entering a celibate school.Plu. rep. Antipas Herod representing married proselytes who were not born Jewish but adopted all aspects of Jewish identity, living like ordinary Jews in the married state. Up to 37 AD, Antipas Herod. Between 37 and 49 AD, Herod of Chalcis his successor.
Title of the son of the "Jacob" who in the Herodian system of the New Israel, using "Abraham" terminology, was the patriarch of the west. Originally Heli the grandfather of Jesus was the "Jacob" and his son the "Joseph", the father of Jesus. In the time of Jesus he himself should have been the "Jacob" and his heir at first his next brother the "Joseph". But when Jesus claimed the position of a high priest, James was both the "Jacob"(the word giving James) and the "Joseph". He was Joseph of Arimathea and Joseph Barsabbas Justus of Acts 1:23. The next brother when he replaced James was Joses, also called Joseph in Matthew 13:55 and Acts 4:36 (Barnabas).
To go on the Way, originally meaning the class of proselytes, who were encountered when ascetics walked along paths such as that beside the wady near Mar Saba. Luke 24:32. Or on the way down to an "unclean" place, Ain Feshkha ,Matthew 28:16. (See Way.)
The female head of an order, or the wife of the high priest or the king. Joy alone, the female head of Asher, Mark 4:16. The wife of the Zadokite. John 3:29 "this my Joy is full" means that the wife of John the Baptist was pregnant. Acts 8:8, pollē chara, Helena to Simon Magus as the Zadokite. Great Joy, the David queen wife of David the Great One. In Luke 2:10 Mary Mother at the time of the Bar Mitzvah of Jesus. In Matthew 28:8 , Acts 15:3 Mary Magdalene. Be joyful, Luke 15:32, appoint a new head of Asher.
The name for the southern esplanade at Qumran, where married men could camp, of the status of the "Jews". Gentiles such as Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea, could also come there. As the name of the lowest part in grade, it could be used to refer to the whole of Qumran. Acts 9:31; 11:1.
(verb) To put a candidate for promotion through the process of judging for his fitness. Acts 26:6. Kritēs (noun) Plu.rep. Hillel, Acts 13:20
The David in the married Nazirite state went down from a "Holy One" to a Righteous One, dikaios. Jesus in Acts 3:14, Acts 22:14. His crown prince was the permanent head of the class of Nazirites, so the title was used of him. In Latin it was Justus. In Acts 1:23 the title is used of James as the crown prince of Jesus. The son of Jesus as his crown prince was identified by the name Jesus Justus in Colossians 4:11.
Guard, literally or preserving commandments, Revelation 1:3;12:17. Merari the jailer, Matthew 27:54; Matthew 28:4,20.
The key to the vault for reserve money outside the Qumran sanctuary. In the year before full initiation to the monastery novices handed over their property to be kept in reserve (1QS 6: 8-10), and it could be returned to them if they decided to leave, as the abbey was a more open institution. The abbot and deputy abbot held the key. Revelation 20:1. The key of David in Revelation 3:7 was held by the first David of the Herodian mission, Jacob-Heli, who owned the fees of proselytes, classed a reserve money, as they must not be mixed with Jewish initiation fees.
As full proselytes were called "goats" in the imagery of the "sheep and goats' (Matthew 25:32), a young goat became the emblem of uncircumcised Gentiles of Asher who were admitted to the same class under Sadducee influence.
Matters for laymen belonging on row 12 in the Heavenly Man imagery. Revelation 2:23.
To expel a member of the village class, one who could not be excommunicated as he was non-monastic. He was sent into exile. Acts 2:23; 9:23; 12:2; 26:10.
excommuncate a monastic. Revelation 9:5, 15.
A man of the status of a graduate grade 3, Qof its Hebrew letter. These were in the third class for Essenes, after A for priests and B for higher levites. At the outset of the mission to the Diaspora, Gentiles who converted to Judaism and followed its ritual practices such as circumcision and food laws were educated to graduate status and put in this class. At graduation they wore a headdress like a crown, and were called "kings", plu. rep. Most were classed with an actual king, called "Earth" when he was in the non-celibate state. They were then called "kings of the Earth". Titus the son of Vespasian became a proselyte in this sense, classed with Agrippa II ( Revelation 17:2). Being graduates and so equal to a Raphael Calf the levite, those who were of sufficient merit were ordained to the ministry and called a Kingdom. A Kingdom of God consisted of those who were under the authority of Sariel, grade Resh 2, the priest for outside the monastery. The Kingdom of Heaven consisted of those who were under the authority of Gabriel the abbot, grade Shin 1. Others also were proselytes called kings of the Earth, most notably one in Britain in Revelation 21:24, a founder of the original Jewish ascetic mission. A proselyte was by definition a convert to Judaism and a member of the Way, of the order of Asher. By the 1st century AD a cultural absorption had taken place, so that the class came to include uncircumcised Gentiles of Asher such as Lysanias and subsequently James Niceta. He was the first Gentile to use the name Christian (Acts 11:26). They were men who could marry, but preferred to live permanently in the Nazirite state of separation from a wife. It was from these men that Christianity as a party developed. The Gentiles of Dan were a different kind of Gentile, adopting a monastic way of life. At the crucifixion the labels over the heads of both Jesus and Simon Magus read "king of the Jews", a Qof subordinate of Resh (Mark 15:26, Jesus. Luke 23:3 Simon.). The singular form was used, not plu rep. It meant that these two, normally in the highest classes as a Taw and Shin, were being reduced to the grade of mere graduate, no better than a proselyte.
The form of ministry that permitted graduates to be "kings", lay ministers. "Kingdom of God", under the authority of the Annas priest (Acts 1:3).
Syngeneia , the married class represented by Antipas, Acts 7:14, Luke 2:44. Genos the class of married Gentiles of Asher, the lowest of all. Acts 7:13,19; 18:2.
Exchange the kiss of celibates who are equals in ministry. Mark 14:45, Luke 15:20b.
The bag on the back carried by a lay missionary to the Diaspora, containing property he was permitted to own. Luke 22:35,36
As for all names of parts of the body, an object placed at the part, not the part itself. The "knees" meant a kneeler, put down wherever a celibate knelt to pray. The object belonged on row 15 at the knees of the Heavenly Man, but when lower grades were promoted it could be brought up to row 13, the dais step. That row became the one on which Christians knelt to receive communion. Luke 22:41, Acts 9:40.
Ceremonial knock on the cathedral door for beginning of the consecration ceremony Revelation 3:20.
Both words for "know" have the special meaning "recognize", accept socially. There are two verbs, indicating the knowledge of two different institutions, the monastery and the abbey. From the verb ginoskō¸ noun gnōstos, the knowledge taught in a monastery. From this kind the word "gnostic" was derived. From oida, "have knowledge", the knowledge taught in an abbey
Know, Gnostic, Gnostic knowledge
Both words for "know" have the special meaning "recognize", accept socially. There are two verbs, indicating the knowledge of two different institutions, the monastery and the abbey. From the verb ginoskō¸ noun gnōstos, the knowledge taught in a monastery. From this kind the word "gnostic" was derived: a man who has the education given in monasteries to know gnōstos rather than abbeys know oida). In John 18:15,16 it means John Mark, who although a Gentile had received a Magian monastic education.
From oida, "have knowledge", the knowledge taught in an abbey
Act independently of a rejected leader. The "lacking ones" were those who followed neither the Annas priest nor Simon Magus as Pope, as shown in Luke 22:35. A term for the earliest Christians.
A name for parts of the Dead Sea when reproducing the Sea of Galilee for Galilean ministers who came to Qumran at the Dead Se for their councils. The part opposite Ain Feshkha was called simply "the lake" (Luke 8:22,23,33) and the part opposite Mazin was called Lake Gennesaret (Luke 5:1). In Revelation 21:8 the part opposite Mazin was called "the lake of Fire", because "Fire" meant a proselyte and proselytes were originally baptized in the sea at Mazin. The part opposite Masada was called "the lake of Fire and sulphur." Revelation 19:20; 20:10.
amnos John 1:29 refers to Jesus as illegitimate according to John the Baptist. Arnion in John 21:15, Revelation 5:6 was a title of the David associating him with the Suffering Servant of Isaiah 53:7, the "lamb led to the slaughter", whose suffering atoned for others. The image was used of all monastics in 1QS 8:1-3. The individual Suffering Servant was the David when living in the monastery. In this role he cared for the illegitimates who were taken in by the Essenes, as indicated in Ezekiel 16:1-7. They were educated as acolytes and formed part of the undergraduate section.
The "Blind and the Lame" were the two grades of Nazirites who were associated with the Poor and the Crippled, the Therapeuts (Luke 14:21). Nazirite grades corresponded to the number of days of their retreats from marriage. A Lame man held a 60 day retreat, and as the letter Samekh was used both for the number 60 and for the initiation grade 7, he was a grade 7. A Blind man held a 50 day retreat, and as the letter Nun was used both for the number 50 and for the initiation grade 8, he was a grade 8. The formula is derived from 2 Sam 5:6, the blind and lame who were the opposite of warriors. Married men were considered to be weaker than the celibate warriors.
Utter a formal lamentation for a death or symbolic death, the work of mourning women. Luke 23:27
The lamp carried by a lay person. By a woman, Matthew 25:4. By James brother of Jesus John 18:3.
A lamp of the Menorah, which had 7 oil lamps for burning between 9 pm and 3 am. Lampstand 7 was the 7th one for 3 am, which was detached and used to mark the exact minutes within an hour. Revelation 1:20. Lampstand 2, Revelation 11:4, measuring from midnight, the 2 am lamp on the Menorah.
A medical lancet, used by John Mark to prick the side of Jesus as a test for death, John 19:34.
In the Herodian hierarchy, the "first" was number 1 and the "last" number 12. The numbers were also applied to the hours. In traditional Jewish practice the day began at 6 am, treated as a zero, so the 1st hour was 7 am and so on. This is the usage for the hours in the gospels. So in John 1:39 the 10th hour is 4 pm, and in Matthew 20:9 the 11th hour is 5 pm. Hence the 12th hour was 6 pm. At the same time 6 pm on the circle of hours was the position of the west, sunset, since 6 am was the position of the east, sunrise. So "last" also means west. Moreover, it refers also to the seasons. The east was associated with spring and the Passover feast, and the west with Atonement-Tabernacles, the autumn feast. Hence the last day, the great day, John 7:37, means the Day of Atonement. In Acts 2:17 the last days means the Atonement for Agrippa, when he would claim the position of the Zadokite who enacted the atonement. In Acts 1:8, the eschatos of the Earth, Rome as the far west.
Not the Torah generally, but the particular laws of the Therapeuts distinguishing them from monastics, including their permission to marry. Luke 24:44, Acts 22:3.
A married man who does not obey the marriage laws of the Therapeuts. Plu.rep.Antipas, who married his half-brother's wife Herodias, Acts 2:23.
A name for the David as the chief layman, one who was not a priest. Since Jesus claimed priesthood, the term was used for his brother James. Acts 26:17. With "All", Thomas, the Herod crown prince, equal to the David, Luke 24:19. The word gave "laity".
Be sent down as a subordinate. Revelation 13:10.
Learn as a disciple, a student learner in an abbey . Noun disciple plu rep mathētai James Niceta as a Christian disciple Acts 11:26. Revelation 14:3.
Revelation 2:4;2:20. Change to a different ministry.
The small amount of mission money given by poor Therapeuts, contrasting with the "fruit" of the Tree of Life given by Jews in the form of Herodian taxes.
Matthew 26:53 speaks of "12 legions of angels", to be read by the pesharist as "legion 12". In the plan of the Temple Scroll, when the gates are from the east, south and west walls to the north wall, Gate 12 was at the north-east corner, for the "tribe" (ascetic order) of Asher. That was the Gentile order of James Niceta, who with Matthew Annas, the "angel", formed the first Gentile abbey with the name Christian. Matthew's gospel was being started at the time in AD 43-44 when this development took place. The name Legion was used by Theudas in Mark 5:9. James Niceta was his servant, and followed him in the ideal of a holy war of evangelism, using military terms. A Roman legion could contain 4000 men. The Chief Therapeut following Theudas was head of a 4000 (Acts 21:38, by then militant due to changed circumstances), and James Niceta was head of the 4000 in the Feeding of the 4000 (Mark 8:1-9).
Plu. rep. Not the legs themselves, but a chain tied round the ankles, pulled tightly to snap the bones. John 19:31.
Military divisions named for animals. Herodian cardinal the Leopard. Revelation 13:2.
Play on "not when", not true midnight but fast midnight, uncorrected, at 9 pm, Matthew 27:64.
An authoritative epistle from a religious superior. Plu. rep. Acts 22:5.
The form of service in the sanctuary of a Jewish boy aged 15 (Acts 26:5), and, because Gentiles were at first equated with boys, the form of ministry given to Gentile bishops. The term also associated a Gentile with Eve, whose name means "life", since as a Gentile he was equivalent to a woman. John 20:31. Acts 2:28. Acts 7:19 a Gentile bishop. In Luke 24:5 the form is ton zōnta, a present participle masculine accusative singular, meaning "the living person". In Revelation 5: 6 "Living Creature 4 " is the neuter noun zōon, a living thing.
Lifeless, Lifeless Ones
The grades of excommunication were 11, for which nekros is used, and 12, for which thanatos, "dead" is used. Nekros is here translated "lifeless" in order to distinguish the stages.Luke 15:24,32. In plu. rep, it refers to James, who as the Rich Man, the grade 11 sin, came down to the nekros form of excommunication, Luke 16:30. Acts 26:8. In Revelation 20:13, there are two kinds of plu. rep. a) Lifeless Ones in Sea, the Chief Proselyte in Bernice's house. b) The Jewish Christian from Tiber Island.
With prefix anaTo exile, the punishment given to a non-monastic who could not be excommunicated. Acts 5:36; 7:21; 12:2. With prefix kath Lift-down, remove from the elevated position on the gibbet", Mark 15:36. Lower, Mark 15:46, Luke 23:53.
The leader standing at the Menorah. As the Menorah was lit at night, it represented the light of the moon. The title of Jesus when in association with Simon Magus, the "Sun". Acts 12:7. Acts 26:13 has them both together. The initial meaning was that the David was equivalent to the Moon to the Zadokite Sun, This accounts for John 3:30, "he (Jesus) must increase, but I (John the Baptist) must decrease". The Baptist was not exalting Jesus, but saying that Jesus as only the Moon, increasing at night, was subordinate to the Baptist as the Sun, decreasing at night. Jesus also acted as the daytime Light, the Light of the world, when he was outside the monastery (John 8:12).He appears in both capacities in Acts 26:13.
The candle reproducing the central candle of the 7-branched Menorah, used by an acolyte for lighting at night. Luke 8:16; 11:33, Revelation 18:23; 21:23; 22:5.
A pseudonym for Simon Magus. The triarchy for Diaspora mission called themselves by the names of celestial powers. priest, Matthew 24:27; 28:3. Luke 10:18; 24:4.); Thunder (Annas priest levite, Mark 3:17. Revelation 10:3.); Earthquake (Chief Therapeut, Lightning (Magus king).
Act as a servant representing a master, just like him. Luke 22:36, Revelation 9:7.
Acts 1:14. A play on "like (servant of) the Wrath", the Wrath being a name for Rome. Pontius Pilate was the Young Lion of Wrath in 4QpNah. He represented the "Wrath", the Roman power, whose occupation of Judea in 6 AD had begun the Period of Wrath (CD 1:5 ). While in Rome Antipas had gained the favor of the emperor Tiberius in opposition to Agrippa, whose bankruptcy caused Tiberius to expel him. Antipas called the city of Tiberias in his tetrarchy of Galilee after the emperor (Antiquities. 18, 36). In his house on Tiber Island Antipas entertained and instructed the Roman governors appointed to Judea, including Pilate, so he was "like-Wrath". It was because of this connection that Antipas was able to bribe Pilate to release Theudas-Barabbas and crucify Jesus.
The fourth Living Creature of Ezekiel’s chariot, for the south, equal to the David as the Lion of Judah. Plu rep the Chief Therapeut. Revelation 9:8.
An equal of a Gershon. The David prince, Mark 15:40, James the brother of Jesus. In Acts 26:22 Titus was the new Gershon for Christians, together with Barnabas the new Kohath, the Great One, a presbyter and levitical bishop respectively. John 13:33. Mark 14:35,70. Matthew 26:39,73. Plu rep Paul, whose name meant “little”, Revelation 11:18.
The + 1 hour of Herodians, the lesser start of day. Luke 22:58, 1 am = 4am. John 6:7 1 pm. Acts 5:34 1 am.
Become an initiate, as in 1QS 3:7, initiates “see the Light of Life”. In the Christian phase, become a Christian, Revelation 13:14.
The money of pre-initiates. Mark 12:44, Luke 15:12. Acts 26:4: The stage of bios, the elementary stage of membership of the ascetic community (Mark 12:44)
Living Creature, Living One
One of the four Living Creatures carrying the chariot-throne in Ezekiel 1. They represented the four compass points, as is shown by the terms "before" and "behind", which mean east and west respectively in Hebrew thought. The Man was "before", so east, the Eagle "behind", so west, the Calf (Greek moschos, not "ox') was north, the Lion south.The names of the four were applied to the administrative heads of mission at the capitals at the compass points. Living Creature 4 was the Lion for the south, the Chief Therapeut of Alexandria. Revelation 4:6; 19:4. The Eagle for the west was in accord with the fact that an eagle was the emblem of Rome. Matthew Annas as the driver of the chariot of Living Creatures, as “God” giving Christian initiation. Revelation 10:6.
The 12 sacred loaves of the Presence that were eaten by Essene monastics in their capacity as priests (Exodus 25:30). True priests normally ate these loaves on behalf of God at noon after they had been presented to heaven.At the exile of Essenes to Qumran they had to admit their celibates to the meal. The 6 loaves numbered 0/13 to 5 were shared among 12 men at the noon monastic meal or its abbey equivalent in the evening, and the 6 loaves numbered 6 to 11 were shared among the same 12 men at the evening monastic meal or at a village equivalent. Loaf 12 was given to the village deacon who took it home to share with his wife or son, thus giving them a measure of holiness for ministry. When Gentiles advanced to graduation grade 3, an additional loaf 3 was introduced (Luke 11:5). It also was for the husband as an "Adam" ,who shared its crumbs with Gentile graduates as his "Eve" with the words "This is my body".
Plague 8 in the Exodus series of attacks on Pharaoh. Applied to Theudas the Chief Therapeut in Revelation 9:3,7.
The loincloth always worn by Essenes, even in the bath, opposing the Greek habit of nakedness on such occasions,Jewish War 2, 161; Acts 2:30.
Promote a Therapeut from a more physical state to a more spiritual state in an abbey. Revelation 20:3,7.Revelation 1:5; 9:14. Untie the knots on the tractates of the incipient New Testament, Revelation 5:2.
Originally the title of a Sariel in the village, the Sadducee Annas priest was called "Lord God" (Mark 12:29), or "Lord" (John 20:28), with reference to the fact that he was believed to represent Yahweh, the Jewish God whose name was translated kyrios in LXX. The term was used of the David when in contact with villagers or Gentiles, meaning that he was of equal status with a village priest, as were other persons also. (Luke 24:34, John 20:20, Acts 1:6,21). It prepared for the claim by Jesus to be an actual priest of the status of Sariel and, since the actual Sariel, the Annas priest, had acted in the place of the Zadokite after 6 AD, it enabled Jesus to claim the highest priestly position (Hebrews 7). In Matthew 27:63 Pilate is addressed as "lord", because he had just been given the grade of a teacher of Gentiles in the mission hierarchy, and also because he was a representative of lord Caesar, the commonly used title of the emperor. In Luke 14:23 Herod the Great as an ally of Rome is called Lord. In Acts 1:24 Antipas is addressed as "Lord" because when in Rome he acted as a teacher of Gentiles.
An object used in a ritual of casting lots to choose between candidates for promotion. Sing. the lot for the winner, plu.rep. the lot for the loser. Acts 1:17,26. Since 1QS 2:2,5 divides all men in terms of the lot (Hebrew goral) of Light and the lot of Darkness, it may be supposed that the object was colored, the winning one white and the losing one black. It was used to make Barnabas the brother of Jesus a levite in Acts 1:26, and the term referred to Barnabas in Acts 26:18.
The meal in an abbey school of Therapeuts at which women could be present was understood as an expression of purely spiritual human love without a sexual element. John 13:1. The possibility was denied by a married man such as Peter, who would hold only a fellowship meal of "friends"philoi. The distinction is made clear in the added chapter John 21:1-17. The same term was used for the meal at which a Gentile could be present, equal to a woman.
Neither hot at the summer solstice nor cold at the winter solstice, so at the September equinox between summer and winter. Revelation 3:16.
The highest priest was called the Standing One. The Magus claimed the position, and his representative the collector of Jewish fees acting for the Magus was called a Magus-Stander. Revelation 18:23.
To act in ministry, officiate. John 20:30, Acts 1:1.
James Brother of Jesus, now called the legitimate David under the Pharisee Caiaphas). Revelation 12:5,13.
(upper case) The word alone is used of all celibate graduates acting as an "Adam" who could teach Gentiles. John 13:31; 18:14,17,29; 19:5. Mark 14:21,41,62,71. Luke 22:22,48,58,60,69; 23:4,6,14. Matthew 26:24,45,64,72,74; 27:32.The rules for preserving their purity are given in Mark 7:14-23. Plu.rep. Agrippa as the head of all celibates, Revelation 9:6, Acts 22:15. "Son of Man" means the deputy, as a bishop. This Man, houtos ho anthrōpos, was a title for Jesus, to mean that he was an "Adam" belonging to the western party of celibates. Luke 2:25 Joseph. Anthrōpos tis was an "Adam" who initiated proselytes. Herod the Great in Luke 14:16. the David in Luke 15:11; 16:1.
(lower case) A man of the married class, not a monastic or dynastic celibate. Luke 22:63 Plu. rep. when used with "Women", as in Acts 9:2, always means Izates with Queen Helena of Adiabene, proselytes whose conversion is recorded in Antiquities 20, 34-48. The dispute over the circumcision of Izates was an issue for the mission in the period of Acts, and involved the young Saul.
The building outside the dividing wall a kilometer south of Qumran, where pack animals for transport were kept. It housed the royal mule, in the substitute made necessary when the Essenes were exiled to Qumran. The original stable for the royal mule was near the foot of the Mount of Olives. The coronation procession of the Davids began there, 1 Kings 1:38-40. Close to the wady Kidron at the point where it turned east, that building was also used as a latrine. The counterpart at Qumran was similarly used as a latrine, on every day except the sabbath, according to the rule given in Jewish War 2, 147. Since it was an unclean place, it was used for the births of illegitimates, whereas the queen's house inside the wall was used for the birth of the David heir, the "Bethlehem". At the time of Jesus' birth in 7 BC a Pharisee high priest Simon Boethus was in power, so he was deemed illegitimate and born in the Manger.
Acts 26:11. To act in the manner of the ecstatic Therapeuts. In Acts 12:15 and Acts 26:24 the accusation of "mania" was brought against persons who were following their rule.
Bread for the meal table of Therapeuts who took bread only at the pentecontads, not wine. Philo,Contemplative Life 73 Revelation 2:17
Derived from the Hebrew term Rabbim , the Many, for the Qumran monastic council, this word was used for the Chief Priest, the head of the council. It came to be applied to the Sadducee Chief Priest, and is always used in the gospels and Acts for the ruling Annas priest, "God", when "in the body" at grade 3. In the gospel period, Jonathan Annas. There were two kinds of Sadducee: one kind following the views of Ananus the Elder, with a liberal attitude to morality that could condone sexual irregularities; the other with a strict view. This kind had been represented by Matthias, the high priest of 5 BC who would not perform the atonement because he had had a sexual dream the night before (Antiquities 17, 165-166 ) They are distinguished in the gospel of Matthew 7:13,14 as the Few using the Narrow Gate (the Matthias type) and the Many using the Broad Gate. The Few were said to be "chosen", Elect, meaning following strict celibate rules; and the Many were "called", a play on Hebrew qara' "to call" a name for Karaite Sadducees who were opposed to Boethusian Pharisees. While Jonathan Annas followed the views of the Many, his brother. Matthew Annas adopted the discipline of the Few, and so was praised for his virtue (Antiquities 19, 315-316). He influenced Thomas Herod, a homosexual who at first followed Jonathan Annas (John 20:28) , so that Thomas, as "Rufus" (Latin version of "Esau" the Twin) became an Elect One in Romans 16:13. Fem: pollai a woman of priestly status, Helena. With "other" her deputy, Mary Mother in Luke 8:3, Mark 15:41.
The X on the forehead given at the highest grade of education in the Magian monastic system. It was in the X shape of the archaic Taw, the last letter in the alphabet, used for the highest grade in Ezekiel 9:4 and CD 19:12.
ordination of a layman, said to be a "miracle" because he had become priestly. Acts 7:36.
Change political parties. Treated as "miraculous", a conversion. Revelation 13:3; 17:6,7,8.
Verb, represent the measurements to scale Revelation 21:17. Noun, Revelation 21:7 the unit of measurement for heights, 4 cubits (6 feet) the height of a man.
On the upper floor of a cathedral, in the middle so on both sides of the double space of a deputy, that of the footstool on row 4. Revelation 5:6.
The south edge of the upper story at Mird-Hyrcania. See Photos P and R. Mird-Hyrcania and Ain Feshkha were both a Bethany, meaning House of the ani, a name for Therapeuts in their abbey called the “poor (afflicted) ”, as opposed to the monastic “poor”, for whom ebion is used. The two Hebrew words are found together in the DSS (CD 6:21, 14:14). Both buildings had structures in the west wing of a courtyard, the northern part for the ministry and the southern for the congregation. Both added an upper floor for the ministry over the northern part during the 1st century BC (Figure 10). The upper floor corresponded to the platform at Qumran where prayers were offered by priests, added after the earthquake of 31 BC. At Qumran the prayers were said under the open sky, but in the abbeys the upper floor was enclosed. The upper floor included its outer edge, its row 7, which at Qumran was called “Heaven”. It was where the prayers were offered at noon, at the high points of the sun, where the priests could be seen by the congregation on the ground floor below.. Qumran, however, was a monastery, and the abbeys varied the arrangement. The back rows of the enclosed upper room were called Heaven, where a Throne stood, and the forward part at the edge, at its row 7, was now called “Mid-Heaven”. At noon the abbot stood there, with a trumpet, announcing the date and other matters to the congregation on the level below. The abbot was an Annas priest, who after 6 AD filled the positions of the Michael and Gabriel that had been claimed by Herod the Great. The Annas priest, a Sadducee, made the additional claim of being called “God”, as an incarnation of God. As shown in Revelation 8:13, set in 29 AD, the Annas priest at that time was called the Flying Eagle. He was Jonathan Annas, the next in the succession of the sons of Ananus the Elder. With further political developments, he and Simon Magus had an arrangement of alternating between East and West, Babylon and Rome. When the Annas was in the West, he used the title of the Eagle, that of the Living Creature of the West in Ezekiel’s chariot. But he “flew” to the East. His main position in a cathedral was in Mid-Heaven, at the edge, in the center of row 7. Being in charge of the Sadducee version of the solar calendar, he made predictions of the series of 3 Woes, extensions of the Restoration by 7 years, from 29 AD to 50 AD. He stood there at times when the noon opening was closed, standing on the pair of planks.
Luke 24:45. The word used for the place where Gentiles educated their mind, being instructed in their own languages. In the original form in Jerusalem it was attached to the stables on the lower slopes of the Mount of Olives, for Gentiles were considered to be "Beasts" and "unclean". In Luke 24:45 Jesus "opened the mind" at 4.05 pm. He was speaking to Gentiles in Greek , teaching the pesher of scripture. In Luke 24:25 Thomas is accused of being "anti-mind", anoētoi, as he knew only Hebrew and did not approve of Gentiles being taught in their own languages.
The process of making a layman a priest by a process of ordination, likened to a miracle, as levitical birth was required for a priest. It was practiced in terms of the Exodus imagery by the Therapeuts. In Acts 2:19 Agrippa was to be made the Zadokite, following the tradition of Herod the Great, without levitical birth. In Acts 2:22 Jesus gave ordinations to Gentiles.
Mix fermented wine with water, Revelation 15:2. Mixed wine was common wine used instead of the fermented wine for more solemn occasions.To prevent drunkenness, the fermented wine was sipped only - "tasted" by Christians (Acts 10:10). Wine mixed with water taken by village pilgrims at a 3 am communion. Revelation 8:7.
A play on the Hebrew grade letters Mem for 9, first baptism and Nun for 8, novice status.
Mock, by treating as a child, pais, a pre-initiate. Mark 15:20,31. Luke 22:63; 23:11,36. Matthew 27:29,31; 27:41
In Acts 2:13 the action of Merari, who could be called Dionysius after the god of wine (Acts 17:34), because he served wine in Agrippa's house in Rome, the Vineyard. From the proverb "wine is a mocker".
Lay missionaries wore a leather belt over their garments as a sign of being outside the sanctuary, in contrast with sanctuary priests who wore no belt (Ezekiel 44:18). The belt contained pockets for safekeeping the money needed for paying for traveling expenses. It was their own money, the salary of "hired servants". In Luke 22:35 owning money is forbidden to celibate missionaries who were given accommodation by friendly members in the east, as in the Didache for "prophets". But in Luke 22: 36 it is permitted, being necessary for travel to far places.
A month according to Julian usage, the same months as are still used. On the 1st of the month. "Three months" means "month 3", March, on March 1, Luke 1:56, Acts 7:20; 19:8; 20:3; 28:11. Five months, month 5, May 1, Luke 1:24, Revelation 9:5. Six months, month 6, June 19:5, Acts 18:11.
Title of the wife of the Zadokite, who was the Sun as being in charge of the solar calendar. In Revelation 12:1, Elizabeth the wife of the Zadokite Zechariah. Title of Bernice the sister and queen of Agrippa II. The title of Helena as the mistress of Simon Magus, "the Sun", as the Zadokite. Helena is introduced by this title in the Clementines (Clem. Rec. 2, 8-9).
Higher than polloi Many. Polloi Tuesday, More Wednesday. Acts 4:22, it was now Wednesday solar 1st for James' year 40, usually on solar 31st. Acts 13:31.
More meant a grade higher "many", so "more 12" in Matthew 26:53 meant a grade 11. The Asher Gentile could act as an "11" as in Matthew 28:16, equal to a Dan celibate woman.
Time 6:00 am. Exceedingly morning lian prōi Mark 16:2, 3:00 am. With ēdē "already", 3 am, 3 hours before 6 am, John 21:4. Prōi skotias John 20:1, midnight as the Julian start of the day, so its "morning in the dark".
The last piece of the holiest loaf 0/13 was preserved for use during subsequent days to give continuity to other such loaves. As it would dry up when kept, it was dipped in a little water to keep it fresh, the water basin being behind the deputy to the priest. John 13:26.
The woman who acted as the Mother Superior to nuns, celibate women of the order of Dan. Mary Mother of Jesus, Matthew 27:56, Mark 15:40, John 19:25, Acts 1:14.
A name for the supreme leader in his capacity as head of the Rome mission. Sing. the Sadducee Pope plu.rep. the royal Herod. He could stand on the Qumran south base understood as the Roman praetorium (Mark 14:26). The "highest Mountain" was the north base (Mark 9:2; the two bases were able to be placed one on top of the other). The house of Antipas on the literal Mount of Olives in Jerusalem was where Roman sympathizers met, including Agrippa at the Pentecostals. The south base at Qumran was the starting-point of its reproduction, extending to the outer hall. In Revelation, a name for Rome, Revelation 16:20 the emperor; Revelation 17:9 mountain 7 referring to the 7 hills of Rome.---In an abbey, the Mountain was a middle floor between the ground level and the upper floor. The supreme leader equal to the Roman supreme leader was of lesser status than the monastic head, the Zadokite, so occupied a middle floor. See Figure 10. Whereas the upper floor began on row 7 measured from the roof, a middle level began on row 10 measured from the roof. It was 3 cubits above row 13 as the lowest. Steps ran up at the front, from row 12 to row 10. The meal table was placed on the middle floor, on its rows 8 and 9. This middle floor was a wooden square of 10x 10 cubits, beginning on row 10, which was at the south side of the 2 cubit wide table. Row 10 was thus for less important persons sitting in a servant’s position on the south side of the table. It was for Gentiles. Row 10 was the “bosom” in the Heavenly Man imagery. John Mark, the Beloved Disciple, sat there at the Last Supper (John 13:23).---John Mark as an Eve, a Beloved attending the agape meal, belonged in “Eden”, the part of the abbey school to which monastic Gentiles were admitted under their Adam. The imagery was derived from Ezekiel 28:11-19, where an outsider, the king of Tyre, was said to have been in “Eden, the garden of God” (v. 12), and in “the holy mountain of God” (v14). A temple was always built on a mountain. The imagery was used to blame the king of Tyre for having fallen into sin and been expelled, like Adam from Eden.---In John 6:3 Jesus “went up at the mountain”. He was at Ain Feshkha, for the Feeding of the 5000, the ordination of Asher Gentiles to the Christian ministry. He went up the front steps on rows 11 and 12 and sat on row 10, at the center of the south side of the table, as an Adam with John Mark, "his disciples", as an Eve. He moved his position to the north side of the table when he claimed to have priestly authority (John 13:21).
A widow or a Nazirite separated from his family, dressed in black. Revelation 18:7,8; 21:4.
An object used at the mouth, a cup for drinking, John 19:29, Acts 22:14. Since the David as "the Rock" (1 Corinthians10:4) gave a cup of water to pilgrims, the "mouth of David" in Acts 1:16 stood for words spoken to pilgrims, the teaching representing "the water of life" (John 4:14). The cup was a container with a lid, so that when it was brought up to a height it would not spill. When the "mouth was opened", as in Acts 10:34, the lid was removed and the cup of water was passed to others to share. Those receiving it were pilgrims of low status who were permitted only water as a sacred drink, but when the "water was turned into wine" (John 2:1-10) they were raised to the status of monastic initiates who received wine.
Gentiles of Asher belonging to the married class, who originally were not numbered in a monastic or abbey system, so were likened to the unnumbered "mixed multitude" of Exodus 12:38. John 21:6, Acts 2:6, Luke 2:13. The verb "multiply", plēthynō is used of the teacher of this class, Acts 7:17.
A term for eating a non-sacred loaf, from Psalm 41:10, quoted John 13:18.
The militant methods of the 6 AD party of Judas the Galilean and Theudas-Barabbas, for defending the faith against an enemy. Acts 9:1; 3:14; 28:4. Acts 9:1 Saul militantly opposed to a relative of the debauched emperor Caligula.
A lower minister, not a bishop, so not a "spirit". Theudas in a lay role as choirmaster in Acts 2:2.
10 000 . The number referred to Jews who paid Herodian taxes in Asia Minor. Each man paid an annual half-shekel for promotion, a “peace offering” as stated in 4Q159. At the outset under Herod the Great, there were 30 000 Jews in Asia Minor, half of the total membership, as is shown in the parable of the Prodigal Son. They were divided into 5 provinces of 6000 members each. 6000 half-shekels made one talent, 3000 shekels. So each province brought in 1 talent, and all 10 provinces in the Herodian organization brought in 10 talents annually in taxes. This was a very large sum, its inventory of deposits given in the Copper Scroll.---A myriad in the singular was 10 000. Its plural did not change the number,but was a plu rep meaning the western side of center, as was the case with words such as “hand” and “hands”. In Revelation 9:16, set in Ephesus before 44 AD, the system is made clear by “twice myriads of myriads”. A formula X of Y means that Y is superior to X. There were in all three sets of 10 000 in the west of Asia Minor, paying their taxes in the capital Ephesus. A "twice myriads", 20 000, were inferior to another 10 000, totaling 30 000. No other figures are given. This was the system before a subsequent change. The social strata meant that the subordinate 20 000 were married men, while the superior 10 000 were celibates.---In Revelation 5:11 , set in 49 AD in Ephesus, the figures are “myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands”. The first set totaled only 20 000 in the west. There was also an additional set of 2000 in the west, 1000 subordinate, 1000 superior. See Thousands. These would be proselytes, Gentiles who had become Jews, with differing degrees of commitment to Judaism. Their instructor was James the brother of Jesus, the Elder Brother of the Prodigal Son parable.---Between 44 and 49 AD the north-eastern province of Damascus had seceded from the Herodian provinces and taxation scheme, having renounced Agrippa I and taken part in his assassination. In the words of Revelation 11:13 “there was a great Earthquake and one-tenth of the city fell”. One of the 10 provinces of the Herodian organization had been lost. The “earthquake” meant the Chief Therapeut, the successor of Theudas in Damascus. His influence was also felt in eastern Asia Minor, with the result that they lost a third of the Herodian taxes. But they made up some of the shortfall by the Thousands, proselytes who also paid taxes, under James the brother of Jesus as head of Jewish Christians.
Words having a pesher, from the definition in 1QpHab 7:5 that scripture is a mystery having a pesher. Mark 4:11, Revelation 1:20; 10:7; 17:5,7.
Literal nail, used to form the X on the collection plate of monastic militants to indicate their harsh ascetic discipline preparing them for martyrdom. John 20:25.
Wearing a loincloth only, no upper garment, as Essene dynasts did even in the bath (Jewish War 2, 161). The condition of a married man, a worker, that of Adam outside Eden, discovering he was naked, having to work for his living and engaging in sex. Peter as a married man was at first in this status in John 21:7, wearing only a loincloth when he accompanied an "unclean" Gentile wading through salt water for his baptism. But under the Christian upgrading of Gentiles he put on a belted vestment when he baptized, that is he had been promoted to a form of ministry and was no longer lay. The strangeness of being naked then putting on a garment to enter the water is one of the signals that there is a pesher.
Following the imagery of being "born again" for the initiation of illegitimates into the monastic family, when they were given a new name, new names were given at each stage of promotion in the ministry. It was done at the first initiation at grade 7, and at subsequent main grades. Since the initiate was being "born again" into a new family, he had a new "father", whose name was used at the time of the ceremony. It was originally the name of a priest, but for Christians the name of Jesus was used. It was this custom that made possible the different pseudonyms for the same person. It was also used for a place, meaning that it was not the literal place but the name of the bishop was used there according to the device of transfer of place names. "Emmaus" in Luke 24:13.
Sing. Simon Magus as the "Jason", head of the original form of the boat mission. John 11:48 , Luke 7:5; 23:2, Acts 26:4. With All, Acts 2:5, Thomas as head of proselytes in a related boat mission. Plu.rep. ta ethnē (Gentiles) Agrippa as a prince in the role of the "Noah" head of the revised Herodian form of the boat mission., permitting Gentiles to retain their ethnic identity as Shem, Ham or Japheth.
The Nazirite vow was practiced by all orthodox Jews, but those belonging to the ascetics had a much higher standard. A married man took a short term separation from marriage to go into solitary retreat for prayer (1 Corinthians 7:5). There were different grades determined by the number of days of retreats, from the least at 40 days (longer than the orthodox 30 days) to the longest at 100 days.During their periods of retreat they grew a beard, in accordance with Numbers 6:5, and shaved it when they entered or returned to marriage, Acts 18:18; 21:24. They were consequently likened to "sheep", being "shorn". "Sheep 100" of Luke 15:4 is the highest Nazirite, holding retreats for 100 days. The form Nazarēnos is used for a dynast while he was in the married state outside, taking Nazirite retreats as married men did. There were different views on when this period ended; in Mark 16:6 Jesus was said to be still in it. The form Nazōraios was used for a dynast based in the monastery but permitted to come outside again for the birth of his child or for subsequent conceptions. In Matthew 2:23 Joseph, in Acts 2:22 Jesus before September 33 AD, in Acts 22:8 Jesus in 43 AD preparing to return. The name Nazareth is used for the places where the different versions of the Nazirite retreat were practiced. Nazara at Mar Saba for 70 days Luke 4:16, Matthew 4:13. Nazareth.with "city" in Luke 2:4,39 the room at Ain Feshkha for Gentile and female Nazirites.
A position having the same identity in terms of time or space was said to be "near". In Acts 9:3, to be "near Damascus" means to be inside the vestry on row 12, which was used for the same purposes as the north base outside called "Damascus". In terms of time, the concept came from the variations on the calendar, when two different times having the same description were side by side in tabular form. A position that was 3 space-time units away from another position was said to be "near", having the same grade of "cleanness" as the other position. In John 11:18 "Bethany" was "near" "Jerusalem"(plu. form), 15 stadia away. It refers to Ain Feshkha, 3 hours away from Qumran , at the rate of 5 stadia (2000 cubits, about a kilometer) per hour. In John 19:20, the gate (the "place of the city") was "near", meaning that it lay on one of the 12 cubit divisions representing an hour, 3 divisions up from the lowest one at the southern end of the exclusion area, see Fig. 2. In John 19:42 "the tomb was near", means that the caves, although down from the end of the esplanade, lay on the same limit of 150 cubits from the outer square of Qumran, 3 sets of 50 cubits, see Fig.3. In Luke 24:15 "to draw near", come from a place that was 3 hours away, from Mird Minor to "Emmaus", both having the same function. In Acts 1:12, the "Mount of Olives" near Jerusalem (sing.form) means Qumran 36 hours away from the stables on the literal Mount of Olives. A sabbaton, the 36 hours for the quartodecimal intercalation, was made up of 3 sets of 12 hours. The "Mount of Olives" at Qumran was the pantry attached to the outer hall,where oil washings were given, loc.86, Mark 14:26. Verb engizō, to be at a place that was "near", such as the north base or its equivalent. Luke 15:25.
Required by the communal law. Revelation 10:11.
The "neck" of the Heavenly Man on row 8 of a meal-room
The Essenes were noted for their welfare system, looking after indigent people, those in need. In the homeland, the money came from a common stock shared by all villagers (Philo, Every Good Man 86-87). In the Diaspora "camps" where members were better off, a system of taxation for this purpose was introduced, derived from the tithing practice. In every month of 30 days, the earnings of 3 days, one-tenth, were to be handed over. The first day's earnings went to the levite; the next day was for the Poor, and the third day for the class called Crippled including the elderly. Funds for the Poor were handed to a bishop for him to administer, and for the Crippled to a judge. This system is set out in CD 14:12-16. The welfare funds had come to be abused by Agrippa for his own political purposes, giving rise to opposition by his opponents.
Two areas of Transjordan, Damascus in the NE and Arabia in the SE, were outside Judean territory,but very close ethnically, so called "neighbor". The mission's aim was to take them over from a base in the adjoining Jewish centers in Iturea-Trachonitis and Perea. The tetrarch Antipas governed both Galilee and Perea, and the tetrarch Philip governed Iturea- Trachonitis (Luke 3:1). But when Lysanias was appointed to Abilene in the NE his center took over mission in that area, sending Philip to work also in Perea, although it was Antipas' territory. The dispute about these mission boundaries is recorded in Acts 7:27, where Philip is called the neighbor. Agrippa I as head of proselytes became the superior "neighbor",Luke 10:29.
A play on class letters, meaning Class C not Class D. It had a positive meaning. Acts 9:9.
The "net" of the Law, in the liberalized Herodian version taught by James Niceta, "catching" Gentiles because it reduced the ritual requirements. Mark 1:19, John 21:6.
A conjunction used as a play on allos, a deputy. In John 20:27 with noun pistos, be a deputy to a Believing One, Jonathan. Acts 9:6. An alternative action.
The New Covenant of Hellenized Judaism was established by Herod the Great. The Baptist Teacher of Righteousness used the term, 1QpHab 2:3-4. Jewish Christians, followers of the Baptist, led by James, preserved the term The word refers to James in John 19:41, Matthew 27:60.
A grade 7 monastic initiate, a new man after being "born again". Newer, neōteros, one grade up, to deacon. John 21:18 Peter as deacon. In Luke 15:12 the Prodigal Son, Theudas. A deacon served with an Elder, presbyteros, Luke 15:25.
Hebrew tirosh, new wine, the drink of Essene monastics in the homeland, following the rules for Zadokites in Ezekiel 44:21 forbidding fermented wine. 1QS 6:4, 1QSa 2:17, 18. In Acts 2:13 the word refers to the practice of homeland monastics at Qumran.
This word is used for the 31st that began the solar calendar intercalation of 17 1/2 days. The change gave a day lasting 36 hours, with its first part on the 31st, called "Today" for prophecy, and its next part on the 1st, called "tomorrow", aurion, so as an extended day it was "upon tomorrow". A variant of the solar calendar referred to by this word in Matthew 27:62 intercalated at the Night position 31st at the equinox and went forward for another 17 1/2 days to a post-position, dropping back to the equinox over 14 years. In consequence, the days were always at the normative Day position. This is the calendar of the Hemerobaptists, Day-baptists, named in the patristic lists of heretics. In Matthew 27:62 the word appears on Good Friday at 6:00 pm.
The party of the Chief Proselyte Nicolaus-Blastus, requiring proselytes to be circumcised and adopt all Jewish rituals. Revelation 2:6,15.
The hour for beginning the second half of the 24 hours. Nyktos Luke 2:8, midnight. For villagers, whose day began at 3 am, 3 pm began the second half of their day, 3 hours before 6 pm. John 19:39 nyktos to prōton 3 pm + 1 hour, 4 pm. En ekeinē tē nykti, in that night John 21:3, Acts 12:6 midnight.
Night and Day, Day and Night
When the post-position of the calendar was used, the main 31st fell at around the equinox, and another 31st was observed 17 1/2 days later. When the calendar was in the Night position, as in the gospel period, the Night 31st was on a Friday, and the subsequent one on a Tuesday. When it was in the Day position, the Tuesday came first, and the Friday later. The terms are used to indicate the position of the calendar. It was Night and Day in September 33 AD, in Acts 26:7. In March 43 AD following intercalation it had changed to Day and Night, Acts 9:24, the half-days being observed at noon (12:05 pm) and midnight (12:05 am).
Be at the end of an Exodus, when Diaspora members were no longer outside the Promised Land in the wilderness. John 21:6.
a name for the acolyte in a monastery , who was still a deacon and had not yet been admitted the higher ministry from presbyter upwards, at which new names were given. It thus has a positive meaning, not negative. The David crown prince. Luke 14:24; 15:16, Joseph. In Luke 4:24, Nemo is an acceptable prophet in his own country - a positive statement about James the brother of Jesus, who is usually meant by Nemo. James in Acts 9:7. Another could act in his position, John Mark as an acolyte at the Last Supper, John 13:28; 21:12.
As te was a play on the letter t , referring to the incorrect Greek pronunciation of Jewish Christians (see plays on letters in Classes and Grades) not-te referred to the correct pronunciation of Greek by proselytes (Revelation 3:15) and by Peter (Mark 14:68).
Antioch, Luke 13:29, Revelation 21:13. The compass points of the four main capitals were used to avoid naming them.
Used with a following word to negate it and indicate the opposite. Mē ti in John 21:5,"not what", not the Sadducee sign of the upright cross, but a different emblem. Me tis, a name for Simon Magus as the opposite of Agrippa, who was called tis. Not for ou gar , John 21:8, not a lay graduate.
In the Exodus imagery of the Therapeuts, a "Not Yet" was a point of time when they found that they were not yet to enter into the Promised Land of the fulfillment of their prophecy. They gave up hope at 5 minutes past the hour or half-hour of expectation. In John 19:41, 6:05 pm on Good Friday night, the 31st favored by prophecy. In John 20:9, 1:35 am, 5 minutes past the half-hour, the time when Gentiles such as James Niceta expected that they would be favored.
Acts 9:26. Plu.rep.A Pharisee, the opposite of a Sadducee who had Faith, a believing one.
A play on Greek and Hebrew letters, giving a sign of initiation different from both the Magian X and the Sadducee T.
The Chief Gentile of the lowly order of Asher, who was "'Nothing" in the sight of Heaven, as his prayers would not be heard. James Niceta in the gospel period. Jesus as the head of all Gentiles could represent him at the time of his silent prayer.
As "nothing" ouden refers to the Gentile James Niceta , "no-thing" outhen refers to John Mark, the other uncircumcised Gentile. Luke 22:35; 23:14.
A double negative giving a positive.
(translated "lest"). Not at the "when", midnight, referring to the Magian correction being made at 9 pm, when it was only the fast midnight, not the true midnight. Matthew 27: 64. oudepote with de (class D) added, 3 am as the dawn beginning of the day for class D, pilgrims and Asher Gentiles. Luke 15: 29.
As a male novice at grade 8 was called a "child", pais, the female equivalent was called paidiskē. It applied to all women members at that grade, including widows. John 18:17.
A play on the Hebrew letter Nun, which has the numerical value of 50, the number revered by Therapeuts. They held their pentecontad meetings every 49 days which they counted as 50 by treating the last as also the first of the next series. They were Pythagoreans like the Essene solarists- Philo relates their valuing of 50 to the Pythagorean right-angled triangle, the sum of the squares on its 3,4,5 sides being 50. In 1QS 10:4 the letter Nun appears alone, in a context that permits it to be treated as the number. The Greek word nyn meaning "now" refers to all times observed by the Therapeuts. With the singular article, to nyn means Pentecost in June , their primary feast With the plural article for plu. rep., ta nyn means the corresponding solstice feast, the December pentecontad, 29/IX. This term is a useful method of giving the date. Without article, the word refers to the usage of Therapeuts on hours. They used the + 1 method rather than the zero for the first hour. For the first watch after the zero watch at 12 midnight or 12 noon, they used 3:05 am or pm. Acts 7:34; 22:16; 26:6. They used the :05 beginning of an hour, Matthew 27: 42,43, Mark 15:32, Luke 22:36, John 13:31,36; 18:36.
At the time :05, :35, :55, in the version of Sadducees represented by the guard Merari, not of the Chief Therapeut, who sometimes acted as a guard.Merari reached the outer limit of the platform at all minutes called 5. A play on the Sadducee T sign,Greek ti, with the Hebrew letters A and R for the Sadducee priest who was of class A Aleph and grade 2 Resh.:05 John 13:7,19; 13:33,35; 13:37.
The letter Nun was called the Number, as it was used for 50, the number honored by the Therapeuts for their pentecontad divisions of days. In 1QS 10:4 this letter is written separately to refer to this calendar and its associated doctrine. Grade 8 novices used this grade letter, John 6:10. A person called the Number is a third Herod down to grade 8 when "in the body". John 6:10. Acts 5:36
Acts 22:3. In the system of grades, grade 9, treated as if a baby, "nursed" , the stage before becoming a "child", grade 8.
An oath by a village Essene, in breach of the monastic Essene prohibition of swearing. Matthew 26:72.
Understand with nous, the language and knowledge of Gentiles. Acts 7:31,32.
Luke 24:18. Be present at a building. In Acts 13:17 the building on the lower slope of the Mount of Olives is called paroikia, and called "the land of Egypt", meaning an unclean place for the "flesh". The word paroikia gave "parish".
The olives that supplied olive oil for use in oil lamps. Oil was an emblem of the laity, those who used oil on their skins whereas monastic Essenes did not. The Mount of Olives in Jerusalem was the less sacred area for the laity, as opposed to the temple opposite for priests. Its reproduction at Qumran began at the south base, called "Mount of Olives" in Mark 14:26. As an emblem of the laity, oil became an emblem of Christians, who anointed lay initiates with a sign drawn in oil called "chrism".
O (for Omega) Revelation 1:8; 21:6; 22:13 The last letter of the Greek alphabet, in O shape, was used by Greek speakers instead of the Hebrew Taw the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, in X shape. It was used with Alpha to say that the speaker was both the Gabriel of class Alpha and the Michael who gave the letter for the highest educational grade. Revelation 1:8; 21:6; 22:13.
heis, mia, hen
(numeral) masc. heis, fem. mia, neut. hen. A grade 1 in the village grades, equal to 7 for initiation in monastic grades. In John 20:12 Simon and Judas in the dungeon were reduced to this grade. Masc. in John 19:34, a number one of the soldiers, a village grade 1 (7) subordinate of Merari (soldiers grade 6), meaning John Mark who was both a 6 and a 7 as an acolyte. Acts 1:22 Barnabas-Joses, also a 6 and 7 at that stage. Acts 2:6 Thomas as both a grade 7 and a monastic graduate, representing the whole undergraduate body in a monastery. Neut. In John 21:25, the leader of Shem(1), the first of the three ethnic groups in the Noah mission, Philip-Protos head of Shem. The verse connects him with the writing of John's gospel, which would have been the case since he was the first deputy of John Mark. He is called Philip the Evangelist in Acts 21:8. Fem. mia, a number 1 for calendar. With years, tē mia tōn sabbatōn, the date 1st of the 1st month of the year, New Year's Day , in different versions according to party. Mark 16:2 Saturday 3 am, the Julian 1st at midnight + 3 hours for the village worker start of day. John 20:19, Acts 20:7 Saturday 6 pm, start of regular 1a in the Night position.
Antipas Herod, a third Herod, so a variant on the deputy allos. Luke 24:14.
Open physically, a door (Matthew 27:52), a jar (Acts 10:34) a book Luke 4:17. dianoigō Luke 24:31, the shutter on a lamp; a scroll, Luke 24:32, Acts 7:56; 16:14, Revelation 19:11 the Heaven opened, the skylight opened at noon, glass with a central hinge, opened like a book by folding one side over the other and placing it to the west side. With a word meaning a Christian book , to canonize the book, declare it sacred for use in public worship . Revelation 5:2. In Revelation 11:19, 13:6, consecrate as holy.
enantion, apenanti, katenanti
Has the exact meaning "south", just as enōpion means "north", emprosthen means "east" and opisthen, opisō mean "west". Enantias in Mark 15:39 refers to the party of the south, the Egyptian Therapeuts, who used the south base.In Acts 26:9 it adds the sense of the Lion of the south, the aggressive image of militant Therapeuts. Apenanti has the special meaning of south-west, and katenanti south-east, the two directions related to enantion south. These latter terms refer to the positions of sunrise and sunset about 7 am and 5 pm in winter, and also to directions in the space-time synthesis.In Matthew 27:61 apenanti means 5 pm, the time for female ablutions, and also south-west, the position of the queen's house in relation to cave 8Q.
A word giving not simply an alternative, but an alternative that is the same as the previous one in another version. In Acts 1:7 "times or seasons", both time words mean 34 AD, chronoi because it is south solar 3970, kairoi because it is south lunisolar 3969.
Act as an abbot with priestly authority. Matthew 28:20.
Other, Other One
A deputy, who could represent a leader. With article Judas in John 19:32, the deputy of Simon Magus.In Matthew 27:49, in the text of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, allos without article means John Mark the deputy to Jesus. With "disciple" showing his Gentile status, John Mark in John 20:2, 3; with an added phrase his replacement James Niceta, John 20:8. In the alternation between John Mark and James Niceta as Chief Gentile, each in plu.rep, was temporarily "other disciples" to the other. Sing.James Niceta in John 20:8. Plu. John Mark in John 20:25, James Niceta in John 21:8. Allē Maria, Matthew 27:61; 28:1 Helena in the role of another "Miriam", the deputy of the mother of Jesus, called "his mother's sister" in John 19:25.
with genitive. In a position one space to the east. The position of the levite in the seating order, since the king and priest at the center were on the left and right respectively, so the priest was "out of the left" and the levite on his east was "out of the right". This usage is drawn on in Mark 15:27 to give the surface impression that Jesus was on the central cross, whereas the accurate meaning was that he was on the "left", the priest Simon Magus on the right so "out of the left", the levite Judas "out of the right". Since the king was below the levite in grade, Jesus was on the third cross, on the west. In John 21:2 ek gives the position of Titus on the east center beside James Niceta on the west center.
In the place of exclusion, outside the holy table for celibates. Mark 14:68, Revelation 22:15. Outside the holy part of the monastery. John 18:16, Revelation 3:12.
The fragments of sacred bread that remained after a meal of celibates at a table for 12. The fragments were given to number 13, a Gentile added at the meal. In the feedings of the multitude (John 6:12) they were collected by the Dan Gentile and given to the Asher Gentile (John 6:12, Mark 8:8). At a further stage they became the small pieces of holy bread used at the Christian communion. Mark 14:31, Matthew 27:23 overflowingly, in the west center position of a Gentile, on behalf of a Gentile.
A Jewish member with private property who was committed to pay fees and welfare tithes was said to "owe". John 13:14; 19:7.
A married man of the village class owned his own property, so was called "own", sing. and plu. rep. The word produced "idiot" because the villagers were less educated in the ascetic community. Acts 1:7,19.
In the hierarchy of "Beasts" - married persons, from the point of view of celibates - there was an ox and an ass, from the words of the 10th commandment in Exodus 20:17. These terms were applied to "Abraham" and "Sarah" in the original hierarchy. Hillel was the "ox" and the "Sarah" , the head of the female order of Asher, was the "ass". He when in the married state was only an elder of grade 5, hence the "yoke 5 of oxen" in Luke 14:19.
Emblem of the order of Asher of Phoenicia. In John 12:13 Asher Gentiles hailing Jesus as patriarch of Gentiles. Revelation 7:9, image of a palm-tree engraved on the plate for gifts for Asher Gentiles.
Cave 8 down from the end of the Qumran esplanade was used as a sabbath latrine. Its lower floor for the actual latrine was called "Hades", following the name Gehenna for the Hinnom valley in Jerusalem used for the same purpose. It upper floor for washing after use was consequently called "Paradise". The plan of rescue included placing Jesus in this cave and supplying antidotes for the poison he would take. The words of Theudas at the gibbet (Luke 23:43) were directed to Jonathan Annas, to ensure that he would come to "Paradise" to supply the plants, aloes and myrrh, for the antidote. The name was applied in Diaspora abbeys to the attached Eden school for Gentiles. Revelation 2:7.
One of the major divisions of the world according to the circular map divided by X. Sing, in the east, plu.rep. in the west. John 19:23 the surplice of Jesus representing the map was divided. It formed "parts 4", the west, and a "part" sing.,the east, to "each soldier", that is Agrippa. Revelation 16:19; 22:19 the term refers to Rome only, the three different Herodian houses.
The word "Passover", pascha, has been the cause of a major critical problem, for it is used both for the Thursday evening of the Last Supper in the Synoptics and for the Friday in John's gospel. The reason is that its pesher sense is "the period of unleavened bread", not the occasion for killing the Passover lamb.The Old Testament gives two conflicting dates for the unleavened bread. In Exodus 12:15 it is at the same date as the killing of the lamb, 14/I. In Leviticus 23:6, it is 15/I. This latter date was observed by Magians and is used in John's gospel, while the Synoptics preserve the Herodian practice, 14/I. An additional factor is that the +2 1/2 datings were in use, bringing Tuesday 14/I and Wednesday 15/I to Thursday and Friday evening. See Learning about Calendar in Section 3, Other alternative method of intercalation.
Under Herod the Great, a Pope and patriarchs of the east and west were appointed, a new "Abraham", "Isaac" and "Jacob". Heli the grandfather of Jesus was made "the patriarch Jacob". In Acts 2:29 Joseph the father of Jesus inherited the office from his father Jacob-Heli.
A symbolic figure such as the X sign for initiation. John 20:25.
The hour for ceasing physical work and turning to religious activities. For monastic, 11 am. (Luke 11:1). For workers, prayers were said at 3 am when they started their day,and 3 pm, when they began their night. When the calendar was in the Day position, the superior time for workers in good standing was at 3 am, and the inferior time for workers in less good standing was 3 pm. The reverse applied when the calendar was in the Night position. Hence the order of the terms, whether Day first or Night first, shows the position of the calendar. In Revelation 14 :11, 56 AD, the Day position.
The key word for the political policy of the Sadducees, who believed that co-operation with Rome was a more effective way of spreading the mission doctrine, as opposed to the armed methods of the militants. Ananus the Elder had gained his position at the Roman occupation of 6 AD by this policy, and his sons the Annas priests all followed it. The word was used as a blessing at the opening or in the course of a service, John 20:19,21; 20:26. Luke 24:36. It became a title for Matthew Annas in particular, in Acts 9:31. The symbol for the dove of peace that the Church uses came from the fact that Matthew as the Kohath, with the Chief Therapeut as the Gershon, was the "dove" of the Noah's ark story, with the Gershon as the "raven" (Gen 8:7,8).
All congregation members were denoted by jewels, the list of 12 found in Revelation 21:19,20. A pearl was not among them, but was named in v 21, as a 13th. A woman could be a 13th to the 12 at a meal table. The pearl was an emblem of the woman only, in her role as Wisdom. There were two kinds of Wisdom, one of Asher equal to a queen regnant, called Wisdom of God in Luke 11:49, the other of Dan, a celibate woman, called Wisdom of Solomon in Luke 11:31. In Proverbs 8:1-3 Wisdom was said to cry aloud publicly, in the streets. It was taken to mean that a woman teacher could stand to teach in front of the north base, the "street" (plateia). This was applied to the celibate woman of Dan. The woman who was head of Asher, founded by the regnant Queen Salome, claimed, however, to be equal to a male levite, a superior teacher, with the right to teach on the north base itself. The saying "Do not cast pearls before (emprosthen) swine" (Matthew 7:6) has the pesher "Do not allow a celibate woman of Dan, a nun, to teach as a superior of married men such as Antipas Herod. (He was the "swine" of Mark 5:11,12,13 because he did not observe the Jewish food regulations when in Rome).
The David as the head of all laity. James retained this role when Jesus claimed priesthood. Matthew 27:64. With "All", Thomas, the Herod crown prince, equal to the David, Luke 24:19. The word gave "laity". New Christian books were at first added to the Writings of the Old Testament, its third and least respected class. The gospel of John had been newly composed by Jesus in 37 AD. It was at that time defined as lay, not an authorized book. The name laos continued to be associated with it in Revelation 14:6.
Act as the Roman procurator, epitropos, who as part of his duties received a token initiation into the Jewish religion. John 19:38.
To express strong opposition in the setting of a council.
To persuade another to join by the methods of argument rather than arms. To persuade a Jewish equal by the same method. Acts 5:36,37; 26:28.
A Pharisee who had adopted the ascetic discipline learned from Essenes, using the Mishmarot calendar based on their solar calendar, Acts 26:5. In the singular, Theudas the Chief Therapeut in his Pharisee mode, Luke 18:10. Plu.rep. Caiaphas the Pharisee high priest, Matthew 27:62.
The knowledge of medicine of Magians. They taught it to the Therapeuts, the Healers. Revelation 9:21. Revelation 18:23; 21:8; 22:15. The Chief Therapeut, who was in charge of the store of herbs, spices, medicines and drugs used in healing. In John 19:39 he brought the large jar of aloes with myrrh to the cave where Jesus was, to be used by Simon Magus, a doctor of higher status, as a purgative to eliminate the poison that Jesus had taken. In Revelation 18:23, the Chief Therapeut Apollos who had transferred to Bernice's house occupied the bishop's seat. He had deceived Agrippa into allowing him to act as treasurer for the Herodian funds. The knowledge of medicine of Magians. They taught it to the Therapeuts, the Healers. Revelation 9:21.
stab, strike with a rod. John 19:37, Revelation 1:7.
See the Appendix on the time-world circle. The podium at the NE corner of the time-world circle of the middle floor, where the point of the X extended to 3 am on the circle. A man stood on it like a statue, with his name and title engraved on the base. Plu rep the corresponding NW podium. The Pillar was in charge of the whole segment, a quarter of the world. The position was at first used by Herods, then when the Herodian world Kingdom became Christian, they were replaced by the four men Peter, Andrew, James and John, close to Jesus in Mark 13:3, appointed as the Christian Pillars. Galatians 2:9. Revelation 3:12.
Pious, Pious One
Essene. Philo says that Essene is a variation on hosiotēs, and he uses hosios as a variant form of Essene (Every Good Man 75, 91). Acts 2:27; 13:34, Revelation 15:4; 16:5. Monos hosios in Revelation 15:4 is Jesus aged 69. Revelation 16:5 John the Essene in Judea.
A position marking uncleanness. In John 19:17 the 4th row of the priests' latrine loc 97, marked by the lowest skull. In cave 8Q, the position for the head on SL7.
A "plague" was a seasonal attack on the Romans by the Therapeuts of Egypt, acting like the "Moses" who brought the plagues on Pharaoh in Exodus chapters 7 to 12. The original plagues had been agricultural blights affecting the seasons, so the plan was to.start with an attack at each of the four seasons of the solar calendar, at the equinoxes and solstices. Of the 10 plagues of Egypt, they selected 7 for repetition. The number 7 was the one most highly revered by Therapeuts, as is stated by Philo. "Nature takes delight in the number 7" (Allegorical Interpretation I, 8), "The properties of the number 7 are beyond all words" (On the Creation, 90). As Pythagoreans they could believe that all events were determined by arithmetic - until their expectations failed. Of the total of 10 plagues, the first 7 were said to form an initial unit, for persistent harassment against Rome, until the final 3 which would bring an onslaught and the desired victory. The first 7 plagues according to Exodus were: rivers of blood , frogs, gnats, flies, cattle disease, boils, hail. The final three were locusts, darkness and death of the firstborn. A series of 7 year campaigns based on the first 7 plagues would be undertaken before the final onslaught based on the final 3 plagues. The 7 year campaigns began against Agrippa I (Revelation 9:18) , and were developed when the tyranny of Nero became known, in 56 AD. They were repeated when further provocation from Rome was felt. The first two campaigns were 56 to 63 AD and 63 to 70 AD, resulting not in victory but catastrophe, the fall of Jerusalem. Then when hope was renewed under Simon Bar Kokhba who claimed kingship in 99 AD, a new set began, from 99 to 106 AD, 106 to 113, 113 to 120 , 120 to 127 , 127 to 134. His new Jewish state was founded in 132 AD and collapsed in 135 AD. In 7 years there were 28 seasons, 4 per year. The number 4 was equally revered, as the first square. The unit of 7 plagues permitted combining 4 and 7 in a set of 28 by planning for 4 successive series of 7 plagues extending over 7 years. The first set started March 1, the Jewish beginning of the year, and ended January 1, the Julian beginning of a year. (See table in Revelation 15:1 Part C Word for Word.) Terms such as "frogs" and "hail" gave a means of dating for those familiar with the complex system. When a "frog" appeared, as in Revelation 16:13, it was the season of the 2nd plague in a set of 7 years that was 7 years later than the previous "frogs", that is it was September 68 AD, in the second campaign. When "hail" appeared, as in Revelation 16:21, it was January 70 AD, 7 years later than the "hail" of January 63 AD. The "plague" , lasted a day, from midnight beginning the 1st of the Julian month to midnight ending it. It was highly organized according to the biblical and numerical system. The order was sent to members in other parts of the world to stage a demonstration or some act of harassment on that day that would show the extent of their hostility to Rome and gain sympathy. In Parts C and D, the word appears in Revelation 15:1, 6, 8; 16:9, 21; 18:4, 8; 21:9; 22:18.
In Matthew 26:73 Peter's speaking (lalia) was plain, clear, meaning that when he said a prayer on behalf of Gentiles on the hour it was not a silent prayer.
A speaker's stand, Used for the wooden platform on which Gentiles and their equivalents were permitted to stand, south of the pillar bases outside the vestry at Qumran, and the equivalent at Mird-Hyrcania. Acts 7:5; 18:12, John 19:13.
The class of Therapeuts, one of the two classes called Poor and Afflicted, ebion and ani in the Qumran literature. The Greek "poor" is used for the Afflicted, the Therapeuts, while the Hebrew "Poor" were the monastic Ebionites. In plu. rep. with article, the Chief Therapeut at grade 7 (Luke 14:21; 19:8).
The congregation annexe was called by the archeologists a "pantry" because numerous ceramic bowls were stored there, some for giving water from the "Rock", the podium, to arriving pilgrims. The pots were made on the Qumran premises at the potters' kiln found in loc 84. The chief Potter ensuring that they were holy was the abbot, the Annas priest. Matthew 27:7.
A Roman pound, 12 ounces, or 327.45 grams, so 100 pounds was 32.745 kilograms. A very great weight of aloe leaves, since a large quantity of the aloe resin was needed to act as a rapid purgative (John 19:39).
The Magian cardinal, representing the king. Acts 8:10, Simon Magus the Great Power. Revelation 11:17 the Magian cardinal Atomus. As shown by the formula "Kingdom, Power and Glory", it was the Priest on the upper east center of the triangular triarchy who was the Power. With article, the Zadokite at grade 0. Without article, in the body or his servant at grade 3. Acts 1:8; 2:22. Powerful, dynatos, Luke 24:19, exercising priestly power.
Used with the special meaning of acting in the Herodian form of ministry, Acts 17:7; 26:9.
See Figure 9C. The south base opposite row 15 was used for the prisoner, with 2 cubits between himself and the judge on the north base. John 18:28. When it was being used for Roman justice it was called the praetorium, the Roman term. (Acts 23:35, Philipians 1:13)
Used as a play on the name Hillel, since Heb hillel means "praising". To "praise God" was to say that the Sadducee Annas was the successor of Hillel as the "Abraham". Luke 2:13.
Make a petition for forgiveness accompanied by a confession at the beginning of a worship service. Mark 14:32,35.
Act as a herald (kēryx), a dynast going before the Zadokite to make announcements. John the Baptist in Mark 1:4. Matthew Annas his successor in Revelation 5:2.
The beginning of the sabbath on Friday, for preparation for rest on the sabbath. Its starting-point was counted variously according to parties.
Act by Baptist rules for proselytes, Luke 23:56; 24:1.The Baptist was preparing the Way for proselytes, who were not yet given the full status of Jews.(Mark 1:3). Their inclusion was seen as a preparation for the coming into power of the world mission.
A minister at grade 5, called an Elder. The word later became "priest", and was used of a Christian parish priest subordinate to a bishop. In plu.rep. James in his role of a "Joseph". Matthew 28:12. Presbytery, presbyterion, Acts 22:5, a presbyter who is not the Chief Presbyter.
Used with laos for Brother James in Luke 22:66, referring to James as head of a lay council attached to a synagogue.
Present a priest. John 21:1 Jesus as deputy presented Simon as priest.
The fee for initiation that was paid in the Herodian system, as a "ransom for the soul", 4Q 159. Acts 7:16. The Herod who received the money was called Timaeus in this role, his deputy Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46). It was an element in the name Timothy, used for the adopted heir of Agrippa II.
To prick as a test for death. The verb was normally used in this sense, as illustrated in Plutarch, Cleomenes 37, 7. John 19:34, Matthew 27:49 Vaticanus.
Revelation 1:6; 20:6 priests of God, a Sadducee cardinal serving in the east and west, alternating with a Magus. He was a "priest of the Holy of Holies", as in 4Q400, that is a graduate who was accepted as a priest in a Diaspora synagogue because of the shortage of men of levitical birth. 4Q400 also calls them "gods". Plu rep John Mark promoted to Christian cardinal. Revelation 5:10.
Refers to a time that was not the true time but an earlier one, from the point of view of some parties. In Acts 7:2 it refers to the Julian calendar beginning the day at midnight before 6 am. In the cockcrowing sayings the word is added to the form given earlier in the evening to mean that the occurrence at 3:05 am was the earlier occurrence of a true one at 4:05 am. Matthew 26:34, 75; Mark 14:30,72; Luke 22:61. John's version in John 13:38 does not use the word. Luke makes the distinction clear by not using the word at 22:34, but introducing it at 22:61 at the time Peter remembered the saying with the addition of prin. Mark 14:30 and Matthew 26:34 introduce the saying at 9:57 pm, at a different time from its earlier use at 9:35 pm as in Luke. They use prin in anticipation then and at 3:05 am for 4:05 am. In John 4:49 prin is used similarly, for noon as an hour before the true beginning at 1pm, the 7th hour in John 4:52.
Also meaning a "watch" of 3 hours, a division of the day. These divisions were announced by deacons of grade 6, an inferior form of ministry. So to be "in prison" means to do the work of a deacon. An expelled priest could be reduced to it, Acts 26:10.
The position in the hierarchy of one who acts on behalf of a ruling power, like the Roman procurators. Luke 8:3, Acts 26:12.
According to Numbers 6:1-4 the "produce of a vine", any part of a grapevine, was forbidden to Nazirites, as a reminder of their nomad days. In Luke 22:18, at 7:05 pm at the Last Supper, Jesus said that he would drink of the produce of the vine (double negative means a positive), meaning that he was not yet in the Nazirite state, intermediate between a married man and a celibate dynast. Later that evening he would enter that state when he was on his way back to the monastic life, and its rules became relevant to the conflict he was going through between 10 pm and midnight,
Used of the Chief Therapeut as a deputy abbot, one who went out into the public world on behalf of the abbey. Matthew 27:16, Romans 16:7.
The Promised Land, the image used by Therapeuts for the chief monastery in the homeland, reached after their sojourn in the "wilderness" of the Diaspora. They intended to take over political power in the homeland from their monastic or abbey base. It would come at a time predetermined by prophecy from the solar calendar. Luke 24:49, Acts 1:4; 7:17. Verb Acts 7:5.
The three main divisions of the New Testament, Gospels-Acts; Epistles; and the final books, were deliberately made to correspond to the three main divisions of the Old Testament, always called the Law (5 books), the Prophets (Former and Latter) and the Writings (Psalms etc), giving the name TANAK from their Hebrew initials. Gospels-Acts, 5 books, corresponded to the Law; the Epistles to the Prophets; and Revelation to the Writings. The word Prophecy is used for the Epistles. In Revelation 22:10,18 "the Prophecy of This Book" means the Epistles of the New Testament. (prophēteuō verb) Act as a "Moses", a bishop. Acts 2:17.
An abbey bishop , Acts 7:37; 13:20. Sing. The Chief Therapeut or his equal as "Moses", a bishop. Plu. rep. the Chief Therapeut as the Joshua, studying the Prophets, the second division of the Old Testament, of which the first book in the Former Prophets is Joshua. Theudas in this role in Luke 24:25,44. In Acts 13:1 Apollos. In Acts 26:22, Atomus the Magus in Tarsus, which had become an abbey in the Herodian revision. In Luke 24:27, Acts 3:18,24; 10:43, All the Prophets, Thomas Herod as a bishop equal to the Chief Therapeut, both teaching proselytes.
A female bishop Luke 2:36.
Having the degree of celibacy of members of an abbey, the Blessed Ones who were normally celibate but were free to leave for marriage. "Blessed are the pure in heart" in Matthew 5:8 illustrates the distinction from permanently celibate Saints. In Revelation 21:21 the "pure gold" belonged in the "street", the row in front of the north base, for the lesser ministers to the Diaspora.
Purify by washing
To wash vestments after defilement, according to the rules of the Temple Scroll 11QT 45:7-18. Revelation 7:14.
The original colors for priests to wear in the wilderness tabernacle were scarlet, purple and blue (Exodus 28:5). When Essene priests following the Zadokites of Ezekiel 44:17 wore white linen robes, the colors were confined to use outside the sanctuary. It is stated in the War Scroll 7:10-12 that these colors were to be embroidered on the sashes of priests while they were on the battlefield, and were not to be taken into the sanctuary. When lay persons began to take on priestly positions, they wore cassocks in these colors to show that they were not sanctuary priests. They were graded , from scarlet for a grade 3, purple for a grade 4 bishop, blue for a grade 5 presbyter. In John 19:2 Jesus was mockingly dressed in purple, the color for an outside levitical bishop. The colors developed as the purple cassock of a Christian bishop and the scarlet one of a cardinal. Both colors could be worn together. The color thus gives information about the office. In Acts 16:14 Lydia was a seller of purple. She came from Thyatira in Asia, where women priests were found (Revelation 2:18-29). She was, therefore, a bishop herself, and one who could make other women bishops on payment of the promotion fee.
Persecute. Revelation 12:13.
Put, Put beside
To put in position, a person or an object. Mark 15:19,46. Put-beside, place in the western position, Luke 23:46.
A female bishop Luke 2:36.
grain container used for storing money. Revelation 6:6. The word means a dry measure of grain, approximately equivalent to a quart. It was a day's supply for a man, stored in a container. There was a new arrangement for Gentiles of Asher who paid an initiation fee of a denarius. James Niceta lived like a Nazirite, so was treated the same as a Jewish Nazirite, paying a denarius on reaching grade 7 imitation after 3 years’ instruction. John Aquila was married, and family circumstances might force him to drop out, so he paid in instalments, a third of a denarius per year over the 3 years
To question a bishop, by a congregation member, Mark 15:44. In John 19:38 James-Joseph treated Pilate as a lay bishop, as Pilate had been initiated and promoted so as to be able to receive communal funds.
tachei, tachy, tachion
At a time unit that was observed early. tachei The season for feasts starting early, on the Julian 1st of the month instead of at the equinox or solstice later in the month. Revelation 1:1-September 1 44 AD, Revelation 22:6-June 1, 113 AD. tachy The earlier one of a pair of seasons, June and January 1. Revelation 11:14-June 1 ,44 AD, Revelation 22:7-June 1, 113 AD, Revelation 22:12-January 1, 114 AD, Revelation 22:20-June 25, 114 AD, Pentecost, Matthew 28:7, 8-The earlier start of a day, 3 am and 4 am before 6 am. tachion An hour. Midnight and 1 am as the early start of a day by the Julian calendar, before 6 am. John 13:27-midnight, John 20:4-1 am.
The Hebrew word for "my Great One", which in the community usage meant only a teacher at the level of lay bishop. Matthew 26:25.
In Revelation 21:11, the enlightenment coming from the Glory on the higher side of the table to servants on the south side.
The curve on the time circle marking 9pm to 3 am, the hours of the Menorah, where the NW and NE radii touched the circumference. This was the only part of the time circle there was room for on the upper floor of the cathedral. Revelation 4:3,10:1.
The fee for initiation into the ascetic community was called a "ransom for the soul" (4Q159 ). Acts 7:35 shows that for proselytes it was paid on their behalf by their Jewish teacher. Joseph as the ransomer , Acts 7:35, Luke 2:38.
Adverb used to introduce an alternative matter or a preferred person. Revelation 2: 25.
At a worship service, give the scripture reading from the lectern. Revelation 1:3.
Since John the Baptist was one who "prepared the Way" (Mark 1:3, hetoimasate), a man who was "ready", using the same word, was a follower of the Baptist. Peter as a village Essene had been in this class, as shown by John 2:35-42.
Receive a promotion from a higher priest. Receive up, receive on a higher physical level. Jesus was received by Simon Magus on the prayer platform at Qumran. Acts 1:2; 1:9,11.
Occupy 2 cubits at the table. Luke 24:30.
Color for the west, that of the autumn season for the Atonement-Tabernacles feasts. Revelation 6:4;12:3.
Mark 15:36. Papyrus reed used as measuring rod for 2 cubits. Revelation 11:1.
The words corresponding to "camp" as in the Damascus Document for a community of married villagers. When they went on pilgrimages to Qumran, they camped in tents, both on the way and when they reached the Qumran esplanade and outer hall. They passed through the areas used by the hermits of the Therapeuts, so the Exodus imagery was applied to them, that of the nomads camping in the wilderness. They took their sacred meals in the outer hall (loc 77). In Mark 14:32 chōrion means the outer hall at Qumran and in Acts 1:18 the corresponding hermitage on the middle level of the Mount of Olives. Chōra in Mark 5:1 , Luke 15:15 means the place used by pilgrims at Ain Feshkha. In Acts 26:20, chōra tēs Ioudaias means the Qumran esplanade used for the pilgrim camps and also for youths undergoing education in the monastery, counted as equal to pilgrims. Chōra makran Luke 15:13 the annexe to the outer hall at Qumran, where pilgrim leaders slept. Chōra autē "same region", Luke 2:8, the reproduction of the Qumran camp at Ain Feshkha.
chairō Hold a night vigil of the Therapeuts with music. Revelation 11:10;19:7. The verb euphrainō, found also in 11:10 and in 12:12, also meaning “rejoice”, refers to a Herodian vigil, with the element eu meaning Herodian. (See Celebrate.)
Promote in the celibate system, releasing from the fleshly condition. Luke 2:29.
Hold an observance, a religious service at a set time. Acts 1:13 for Pentecost. Acts 1:4, perimenō, hold a service at the times for proselytes, 4 am and 4 pm.
mimnēskomai (verb) To give as oral teaching, not from a written document. Luke 24:6,8. Repeat words exactly after someone else. anamnēsis (noun) Luke 22:19 the words of the eucharistic blessing. In Mark 14:72, Luke 22:61, Matthew 26:75 Jesus repeated the words of the cockcrowing saying in a new form, and Peter repeated them after him, with the same changed meaning.
The Damascus Document 2:10-14 speaks of Damascus members as the saved Remnant of Isaiah 7:3. Damascus was the center where Hillel first brought proselytes into Judaism (Acts 7:4 pesher). Proselytes were then counted as part of the Remnant. A further step was taken when celibate monastic Gentiles under John Mark were classed with proselytes. He remained allied with Damascus after the schism of 43-44 AD. The adverb loipon is applied to him in Mark 14: 41, Matthew 26:45.
Transfer the leadership of a church. Revelation 2:5, 6:14.
To "change care", by turning to a different loyalty. Matthew 27:3, Judas when he returned the levitical tithes to Annas priests.
The first stage of initiation, when a man repented of his past life and began the process of entering a monastery. This was at grade 9, when he received his first baptism. In AD 29 John the Baptist was baptizing at this stage , Mark 1:4. Luke 24:47. A stage of initiation when a man made confession of his sins at the outset of a prayer service, as is still done in some Christian services. It was a substitute for participation in the rite of atonement. Verb Revelation 9:20.
Announce a promotion in the series of Signs, semei, Hebrew letters for the classes. Revelation 1:1.
hoiloipoi, panteshoiloipoi, hailoipai
Mark 27:49, Luke 24:9,10. The Remnant, a term used for proselytes as a saved remnant after outsiders were destroyed (Isaiah 7:3). Thomas Herod was the head of proselytes, who were often drawn from the eunuchs in the Herodian households. Both terms in the masculine form refer to Thomas. The feminine form in Luke 24:10 means Mary the mother of Jesus, who under the pre-Christian doctrine acted as Mother to all Gentiles, including proselytes.
A dynastic celibate returned to the monastery after being outside for marriage was said to be "resurrected", restored to the pure celibate life.He was re-admitted by the Sadducee acting as an abbot. The role had been that of the Hellenist Jonathan Annas in the gospel period. In Revelation 20:5 a Hellenist layman in Bernice's house was given the title Resurrection the First, implying that he was the first in a dynastic succession.
Literally, “from-hidden”. Emergence from the hidden monastic state.In September 44 AD Jesus had been in the hidden monastic state in Antioch, then was permitted by Matthew Annas to come out into the world to go to Cyprus. Revelation 1:1. The first word became the name of the book, as was usual for OT books.
Literal worship, directed through an Annas priest or a cardinal, not the “worship” of proskyneō, which meant pay the Roman tribute. Revelation 7:15, 42.
Abuse a teacher of a different doctrine. Judas on the gibbet against Jesus, Mark 15:32.
The salary paid to a married missionary, making him a "hired servant" from the point of view of opponents of the system, who believed that missionaries should support themselves by working at trades. Mark 1:20. Acts 1:18, 1 Corinthians 9:4-7.
The David prince, appointed over outside villagers, owned private property as they did, so was called "rich" by the standards of the celibate "poor". He was the legal owner of the fees paid by Asher Gentiles when they advanced to initiation.Their "unclean" Gentile money was kept separate from the fees of Jewish villagers. The Rich Man in the gospels is James the brother of Jesus. Mark 10:17,18; 10:19,20,21,22, Matthew 27:57, Luke 12:13,14,15,16,17,20,21.
In the central two places for the priest and the levite/king, the east for the priest was right and the west for the king left. Hence "out of left" means right, for the priest, since "out of" means 1 space to the east; and "out of right" means the place of the levite on the east of the priest. "Left" alone was the western cross, for the king, Jesus. These terms are used in Mark 15:27 and parallels to give the misleading impression that Jesus was on the central cross. Mark 16:5 "in the right", on the east step of the 2 cubit top step, the place for the priest. John 21:6 the right side of the boat, that is the eastern side, the stern, as the prow was directed faced west towards the land.
The second grade of a lay dynast, a presbyter grade 5 above a "good" deacon grade 6, and below a "holy one" bishop grade 4. The David crown prince was the permanent head of grade 5, that of Nazirites, so is called Righteous, in Latin Justus. Acts 1:23 James, brother of Jesus is called the Just; Colossians 4:11 used for Jesus Justus the son of Jesus. When the David went outside the monastery into the married state, he came down to this grade, so Jesus is called the Righteous One in Acts 3:14; 22:14. The derisive pseudonym used for Jesus in CD 4:20, Saw, spelt Sadhe-waw, was derived from the initial Sadhe of Hebrew saddiq, righteous, with the waw added to an initial.
The rising of Sirius in July was a metaphor for girls reaching puberty. Revelation 18:14.
Revelation 14:7. Those sitting on the two sides of Row 13 were likened to the Sea - a novice - on the west and River- a pilgrim - on the east. The river Tiber on each side of the Tiber Island had two kinds of water, sewerage called Sea on the west side, and fresh water called River on the east.,The Chief Pilgrim was called River because he was given a drink of water on arrival at the abbey. At Qumran an aqueduct ran through the triangular area outside the vestry, Loc 100, where the pillar bases stood. Since the north pillar base could be likened to a tree, where the David taught Gentile celibates in their "Eden", the aqueduct was likened to the rivers running through the garden of Eden (Genesis 2:10). In Acts 16:13 a parallel area in Philippi, "beside a river", was called a place of prayer, where the woman Lydia was found, as women of her class were equal to Gentile celibates. In Revelation 22:1 there was a reproduction of the area outside the Rome Christian monastery. The running water of a river was the second of the three classes of baptismal water listed in 1QS 3:4-5: fixed cisterns for monasteries; rivers of running water for abbeys; sea water for the married class in villages. The "Eden" was part of an abbey, and when the David taught on the north base, he represented the highest kind of baptismal water, while a deputy called River stood on his east side and another called Sea stood on his west side.
The open space where the pillar bases outside the Qumran vestry stood. The entrance to the south door of the vestry lay between them. Luke 14:21.
Mark 16:5 the long robe of the Zadokite Ezekiel 44:17 LXX.
From the physiological imagery of the Heavenly Man, the testicles on row 13 for the genitals were called "stones". The terms were used for the stones blocking the entry shafts to caves 7Q and 8Q, those of the "Resurrection". See Figure 5. To distinguish them, the eastern one was called the Rock (petra) and the western one Stone (lithos). Both terms are used for the two stones at the caves in Mark 15:46. The word "Rock" reflected further imagery, that of the Exodus, where Moses was said to have struck a rock and produced water (Exodus 17:1-7). The city of Petra in Transjordan was believed to be this place. The pilgrims to Qumran, led by Peter, passed through Petra when they took the eastern route. They were associated with water because they were given a drink of holy water when they arrived at Qumran. Peter was for this reason given the title the Rock (John 1:42). He held it as the representative of the David, who, when he was outside the monastery in the married state, led village meetings on the east center of row 13. This is shown in 1 Corinthians 10:4, "the Rock was Christ".
An allusion to the coronation Psalm 2:9, the iron rod with which the David would rule. In Revelation 19:15, a rod given at the coronation of the new David, Jesus Justus.
The incipient New Testament consisted of flat tractates, of which a number could be held loosely in a folder. When the Athens cathedral was made into a substitute sanctuary, each tractate could be rolled up like a scroll in the Jewish fashion. Revelation 6:14
The Plant-root of CD 1:5-10, the new formation that was established at the period of the Roman occupation and subsequently reformed by John the Baptist. It was a later modification of the Plant of Righteousness, the Essene school system formed in 328 BC, described in the Apocalypse of Enoch. These were monastic Essenes who had given up their a-political attitudes and used their meeting places in the Wilderness of Judea for preparing war against Rome. When John the Baptist became the Zadokite, he convinced them not to engage in armed attacks but to wait for heaven's intervention at a time appointed by prophecy. In Revelation 5:5; 22:16 the word had become a name for the David dynasty, which the Essenes were committed to restoring.
The archōnwas a mission leader at one of the 4 geographical corners of the homeland in an X shape, NE, SE, NW and SW. He offered prayers at the beginning of a time period in his practice, 3 am and 3 pm for villagers. The cloth let down in Acts 10:11 was in 4 corners, tessarsin archais. The hours of 3-3 and 9-9 were placed in an X shape on the time circle, and an archōn was stationed at the geographical places corresponding, Damascus in the NE (Acts 7:35), Arabia in the SE, Asia Minor NW., Kittim SW. In Acts 7:27 the tetrarch Philip in the SE. John 3:1 Theudas in the NE. Plu. rep. archontes, Antipas and his successors in the NW, Galilee. The chief archōn offered prayers at the main hours of 6-6 and 12-12 in Jerusalem, Acts 7:35.
aorist edramon. To act as a guard, who at the changing of the guards covered 2 cubits in the center in 1 minute instead of 2, so was said to "run" - walk faster. Also act at the outer limit, where the guard moves from one cubit to another in the same minute at :05. Mark 15:36, Matthew 27:48. As a guard, to act also as a higher teacher, faster than a teacher who "walked". The higher teacher gave the pesher of scripture. In 1QpHab 7:1-5 the verses Habakkuk 2:1-2 are interpreted of the Teacher of Righteousness in this role. Mark 10:17, Luke 15:20b.
The sing. means the 31st in either position of the calendar, Day or Night, derived from the fact that in the Night position the 31st fell on Friday evening, which was also the beginning of the sabbath. John 19:31, Mark 16:1, Friday 31st. Acts 1:12, the 31st began the 36 hour long day caused by the quartodecimal intercalation. Plu. the sabbatical year of the solar calendar, in its different versions. Mark 16:2, John 20:19, the south solar 3969, beginning 1st of the month in its different versions. The term tē mia tōn sabbatōn meant the Saturday, the day after Good Friday, for calendar experts, but could be used to give the impression that the "resurrection" was on Sunday, the day on which Christians subsequently celebrated it in order to avoid the Jewish sabbath.
The winter hair garment of Therapeuts, Philo Contemplative Life 38. In Revelation 6:12, where the word appears, the date was September, 50 AD. Winter was counted as lasting from equinox to equinox, from September to the following March , at the 31st near the equinox. This is seen from John 18:18, where it is said to be cold early on Good Friday, which was March 20 at the equinox.
Perform the sacrifice of prayer and worship that replaced animal sacrifices for Essenes. 1QS 9:4-6. For those keeping the Julian calendar, the main one was performed at midnight. Acts 7:42.
The servant of the "Noah" in the Sea mission to Gentiles. The deacon "rower" in the Noah mission, Acts 27:27,30, Revelation 18:17.
Saint, Sanctified Ones
The first grade of a dynast, as "holy", a bishop grade 4. In sing. the David, in plu. rep. the David crown prince when a permanent celibate. This term in the plural is used for Joses-Barnabas the brother of Jesus, the next below James, whom Jesus appointed his crown prince when he was in conflict with James. Joses-Barnabas was the third son of Joseph and Mary, born 8 AD according to the dynastic rule for conceptions. In 33 AD he was aged 24, and was committed to permanent celibacy as an acolyte. Matthew 27:52 refers to him in his role of a "child Samuel", attending the Menorah at midnight, so sleeping during the afternoon. Sanctified Ones hēgiasmenois Barnabas in Acts 26:18. In the singular, Jesus when in the status of a monastic celibate, Revelation 3:7, or Jesus Justus acting for him Revelation 6:10. In plu rep, John Mark a Gentile monastic as the representative of Jesus, Revelation 5:8; 11:18; 13:10.
A proselyte who collected fees for membership and promotion under the Herodian system. Revelation 18:3,11; 18:15,23.
A word indicating the pilgrim class, who when they came to Qumran camped on the esplanade, called the Salt (Heb. melach) in the Copper Scroll, meaning that it was common territory , part of the Dead Sea (Salt Sea). "You are the salt of the earth " (Matthew 5:13) alludes to this lowest class of members. Verb synalizomai, "to take salt" in Acts 1:4 means that it was another occasion for the visits of pilgrims to Qumran, at the post-position after the equinox.
The Joshua of the mission, whose name in Hebrew meant "Yahweh will save". Acts 7:25; 13:23; Acts 28:28.
In the gospel period and Acts 9:31, the upper floor of the west wing at Ain Feshkha, where Simon Magus ruled as the Samaritan Magian, the name brought with him when he came there for councils. In the rest of Acts, the actual Magian monastery at Caesarea, as opposed to the Herodian abbey called "Caesarea".
with a noun. With "day", Luke 23:12, Luke 24:13 for the day at a repeated time, "same" in the sense of the same function. Therapeuts counted the beginning of divisions of the day at the +1 hour, calling it the "same" day as the 6-6 or 3-3 division. Luke 24:13 at 4 pm (3.55 pm). With "hour", the repeated beginning of the evening at 9:05 pm, Luke 24:33, Acts 22:13. Epi to auto the three-hourly watch repeating the usual beginning of the night or day at 12-12, as the beginning of the day observed by workers. 3 pm in Acts 1:15, 3 am in Acts 2:1.
Originally loc 111 at Qumran, the substitute place of worship for exiled Essenes. In the cathedral building, the edge of the upper floor having a corresponding function. In the abbey (originally loc 77 at Qumran) the word "sanctuary" was used for a part of the portable altar and ark that was brought to the outer hall, the abbey, at the time of the visit of the Zadokite or his equivalent.(Figure 15b). The ark reflected the portable tabernacle of the wilderness wanderings, the image used by Therapeuts. Of the three rows on which the objects were placed, rows 6, 7 and 8, row 8 was for the "sanctuary", corresponding to the division of the ark that contained the manna (Hebrews 9:4). So "at (eis) the sanctuary" was row 7. It was here that the Zadokite stood to perform the Atonement sacrifice on the altar of incense row 6 (Luke 1:9). In Matthew 27:5 Judas threw the silver on this spot, mixing it with money paid to Therapeuts, the Poor of the welfare system. It should have been kept separate as tithes for levites. His action would enable Agrippa to help himself to the welfare tithes which he was using for his own political purposes. It was for that reason that Annas, always jealous of priestly privilege, condemned Judas and sent him for trial and execution as a militant. In the Qumran substitute temple, loc 111, a line of stones marked off its upper third (Photo XX ). Its position corresponded to the Holy of Holies, the higher third in the wilderness tabernacle (Exodus 26). The upper floor of the cathedral came forward to a row 7, and below it, extending further out, lay the middle and ground floors. From detail in Revelation 11:19, it is seen that the upper floor corresponded to the Holy of Holies. The word naos referred to its beginning at the edge of row 7, which was also called “Heaven”. Further back, on the footstool on row 4, stood the Jewish Christian Ark of the Covenant, a lectern containing the books of the Law. The Christian version of the arrangement maintained the sanctuary as the holiest part of a church, but the lectern was brought forward to be on the same line as the pulpit, on its opposite side.
A split among Semites called desert dwellers "sand"', and others "Rock" , from Petra the capital of Arabia. The desert ones supported militancy. Petra under its king Aretas was Hellenized, as shown by its elaborate buildings. To say "build on the Rock not on the sand" (Matthew 7:26 ) meant reject the militant desert Semites of Arabia but support those of Petra. The sand of the seashore at Kirbet Mazin at the watergate, where Mary stood to receive Gentiles. Revelation 12:18.
The sandals worn by a missionary who traveled in the Diaspora and was not a sanctuary priest, one who like Moses had to have bare feet when on the holy ground of the sanctuary (Exodus 3:5). To wear them meant that he was a layman, not a priest. In Mark 6:9 the missionaries were told to wear sandals. Sing. The right sandal, plu.rep. the left sandal. A bishop collecting welfare tithes from the Diaspora placed the money jar on his right sandal and tied its top on with the sandal straps, Act 7:33.
A name for the levite Raphael in his task of being Chief Examiner, testing candidates for admission to a monastery.
Share a loaf with an equal partner as a sign of fellowship. Mark 6:42, Revelation 19:21.
Act in terms of the Noah imagery, saving from the Flood, by saving Gentiles from actual death at the time of the Eschaton, giving them initiation as religious salvation.
To speak as a teacher.
The collection of teachings of Hillel to proselytes, which were in use as a "gospel" by 6 AD and formed part of the Sermon on the Mount of Matthew's gospel. Acts 7:38. Matthew's gospel was said to be derived from collected Logia in Hebrew (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3. 39, 16
For weighing the coins of initiation fees Revelation 6:5. The same word means “yoke”, Acts 15:10.
The circumcision requirement was a skandalon, an object causing people to fall. Mark 4:17. When it was imposed from the north base, the raised base was called the stumbling-block. Mark 9:42,43 uses the verb for the requirement for Gentiles. The third Herod, Antipas, required it, so the verb was used when he took the north base in Mark 14:27.
In addition to a surplice, dynasts used a continuous scarf without a seam worn around the neck for priestly duties such as forgiveness of sins. The word normally used for "shirt" has this sense, as is shown by its being seamless (John 19:23).The surplice was called himation, "garment". The pesher of Matthew 5:40 is that a lay dynast who wants the priestly scarf should also wear the lay surplice, not a levitical priest's long robes.
John 19:2 and Mark 15:17 say that Jesus was mockingly dressed in purple, but Matthew 27:28 says it was scarlet. The reason was that he was given both, a scarlet cloak over a purple cassock. The combination of scarlet and purple was that of Bernice, a Herod queen who acted as a priest, in Revelation 17:4.
Stand very close to the furnace for cooking sacred loaves, as the firelighter at 4 am had to do. The firelighter was a Sinner being reminded of eternal punishment. He could be a sodomite, such as Thomas at the time of Jesus' trial at Qumran (John 18:18), or an immoral woman such as Bernice in Rome in Revelation 8:7; 18:8.
The Baptist in the eastern underground prison cell at Mird-Hyrcania. which was overrun with scorpions Revelation 9:3,5. In Revelation 9:10, Simon Magus in the same cell.
The punishment administered to a schoolboy standing on the south base in the Qumran school was a flogging. In John 19:1 the word is used of Jesus on the south base, but RLR means that he himself was the subject, a self-administered flagellation such as continued in Christian monasteries.
Raphael , a monastic Scribe who copied documents. In 6 AD Judas the Galilean. Plu rep his successor Judas Iscariot, then after his death his replacement Eleazar of Galilee, the Scribes in Acts 4:5.
The place where a Noah's ark ceremony was held, at the "sea", which was the lowest possible grade of water. Baptismal water was graded: a cistern for monastics, running water for hermits; sea for "unclean" women at the time of menstruation, and for Gentiles their equals. The ceremony was enacted at the shore on islands where Gentile monasteries were established equal to female convents. At the main headquarters the place now called Khirbet Mazin was used, its great watergate, still partly standing, being the place where Gentiles stepped on to the dry land of "salvation". It was called "the Sea of Galilee" as the place where Gentiles began their progress up to Ain Feshkha, "Galilee". In John 21:1, it was called the Sea of Tiberias, as the reproduction at Mazin of the beach for the Noah drama at Tiberias, the main city of Galilee. In Rome the Tiber Island had been the base for the Noah drama, and married men and women met there as equivalent to the "unclean". But when Bernice arrived she fell out with her relatives on the Tiber Island and moved to a house on the west bank. Her houses in both Ephesus and Rome were then called the Sea. Since one of the meanings for Sea was an unclean place for menstruating women to wash, this meaning applied both to Khirbet Mazin, called the Sea of Galilee, and the shed beynd the SW corner of the Ain Feshkha building, called simply the Sea (John 6:16, 17, Revelation 13:1). (Figure 8).
The noun. A treatise in the incipient New Testament of Revelation 5:1. At this stage in 49 AD, it was a flat leather folder containing individual flat documents.that could be pulled out separately to be read, each tied with a tape at the edge, with a wax seal on the knot. The folder at present contained only 7 treatises , each called a Seal. In Revelation 7:1, the T sign worn on the phylactery by a monastic Christian, John Mark. In Revelation 7:4 Sealed Ones plu rep for the west, a man in the Rome monstery wearing a phylactery as a Jewish Christian. The seal over the dungeon, cave 7 at Qumran, was the Rock, normally blocking the eastern shaft. When the Stone was sealed (Matthew 27:66) the Rock had been lifted out and placed beside the dungeon door next to the stone further out.
The seamless scarf (chitōn)bestowing priestly status signified the unity of both sides of the world mission. John 19:23. If it was torn at the neck, using the word for "schism" (John 19:24) it would mean that there had been an east-west ecclesiastical schism.
Make individal study of lay doctrine, not the higher knowledge of the abbey or monastic schools. A hermit or solitary Nazirite prepared for promotion in this way. John 5:39, John 7:52, Revelation 2:23.
The quartodecimal year for intercalation of the solar and lunisolar calendars. The lunisolar year fell a year later than the solar because of a difference about counting the year 0 from creation. The 31st at the seaon, beginning the quartodecimal intercalation. Revelation 12:14, the series from the different calendar parties added up to 3 1/2 years.
The second in a series using ordinal numbers. Time 2 pm in John 21:16. The second occurrence of a time. The second Pentecost to the post-position in Acts 7:13.
A community such as the Essenes, ascetic Pharisees, and ascetic Sadducees, who used a different calendar from the Jerusalem temple, so held their observances on different days. Acts 26:5.
The noun and verb refer to Merari, the "jailer". Matthew 27:65,66 who ensured that doors were closed at 4 pm. Acts 2:36 Merari appeared at 4 pm to announce that the council was over.
Each verb "to see" gives the number of cubits between the person seeing and what is seen. It is a major device in the pesher, showing the structure of buildings and positions of people. The different words are translated "see", with a number to indicate the cubits between. atenizō, see, 1 cubit between (translated "stare'); eidon, see, 2 cubits between; eidon, see, 2 cubits between; horaō, see (used interchangeably with eidon in Greek grammar); blepō, see, 3 cubits between.; theoreō, see-4, 4 cubits between; theaomai, see, 5 cubits between.
see 1 cubit between. (translated "stare')
see 2 cubits between.
see 2 cubits between. (used interchangeably with eidon in Greek grammar)
see 3 cubits between.
see 4 cubits between.
see 5 cubits between
A son. Mark 12:19-22 Revelation 12:17 Jesus, the seed of David. A Gentile who was initiated in the place of the genitals of the Heavenly Man on row 13. The "seed of Abraham" (Hillel or the Sadducee God called Abraham) were proselytes , Acts 7:6. The "seed of David" were uncircumcised Gentiles. Acts 13:23.
To test a person in order to recruit him to ministry.
To embrace, as wife to husband. It was a sign of close fellowship among laity. John Mark to Jesus, Mark 14:44, Antipas to Simon Magus, Mark 14:51. The All-seizing One, pantokratōr was the Annas priest in the court of Agrippa II, permitted to embrace the king. Revelation 1:8; 16:7; 19:6,15; 21:22. Used for the priest who was closest to the king, who would crown him and embrace him at the coronation. Revelation 1:6,8.
Receive money from others for promotions. Revelation 13:17
The verb giving the noun apostolos. To send a celibate dynast away from the monastery, into the state of "uncleanness" of the outside world. A temporary situation for dynasts during a 3 day defilement, a permanent state for Gentile monastics such as John Mark, who as a monastic but uncircumcised was always "unclean". Simon Magus sent outside, Acts 9:17. The first stage for an "apostle", a defiled monastic, was to go to the exclusion cistern in Loc 91 at Qumran. In John 9:7 it is called Siloam, and the name is connected with the Hebrew shalach "to send" and interpreted as apestalmenos, "sent from"
Send as a missionary of the village status, not a monastic.
The Chief Therapeut in his healing capacity, from the Ophites, doctors using the snake emblem. John 3:14; Revelation 12:9; 20:2. He had access to poisons which were used at the crucifixion and at Masada. Name also used for the Magus in his medical role Revelation 9: 19; 12:14.
A deacon of grade 6, the lowest form of ministry.
The status of a levitical deacon. Acts 1:17,25.
Since it is using an ordinal number, not a cardinal number, it refers to a lay minister in the succession of the First One.
The state of being defrocked, not wearing vestments, put out of the priesthood, so “naked”. Hebrews 12:2. Jesus on the gibbet after his surplice was taken off, John 19:23. Jesus at the time of his divorce, 45 AD in Rome, Luke 14:9. Revelation 3:18 “The shame of your nakedness not appear”. Addressed to Nicolaus-Blastus a castrated proselyte eunuch, by Jesus in his Laodicea letter in 49 AD. He was saying that the castrate may minister if taught by a priest, living as a celibate, wearing a surplice. Castrates were permitted in the Christian ministry as singers, preferred to women. In Jude 13, heretics are “wild waves of the Sea (the Noah mission to Gentiles) casting up the foam of their own shame (have been defrocked), (in apposition) wandering stars (the David, Barnabas-Joses a celibate to Jesus) for whom the nether gloom of darkness (Rome) has been reserved at the aion (the Restoration)”. The verse is followed by a quotation from the Enoch prophecy, condemning sinners. Jude, a brother of Jesus, is speaking for his own side in the divided Davd family, 2:3 Jude and James against Jesus, Barnabas-Joses, Simon-Silas) (Luke 12:52). Philippians 1:20 Paul in prison is no ashamed, not defrocked. In Philippians 3:19 Paul says of defrocked heretics, “They glory in their shame, their god the koilia, (belly, womb , name for Bernice claiming to be a priestess) minds set on earthly things ( abbeys only accepted, not higher schools in monasteries)” . 2 Corinthians 4:2. Paul says “ We have renounced hidden things of shame” In 57 AD he has separated from Magians. In 2 Corinthians 10:8 “I shall not be put to shame”. Paul says that he will not be defrocked, now that Christians have the upper hand with Jesus in Greece. Luke 16:3 The steward Theudas 17 AD is “ashamed to beg”. An old man, he has retired from the active ministry, and acts only like a lay Nazirite, who asks for alms. 1 Peter 4: 16 “If one suffer as a Christian let him not be ashamed, but under that name let him glorify God”. A Christian layman, not being a priest, should not be defrocked for practicing ministry, but act as a lay bishop.
A celibate at the latrine, normally always wearing a loincloth. Revelation 16:15
The disciplinary sword of the Davids, symbolised by a literal sword for military use, was “sharp”, as being capable of excluding unworthy Christians, but also for “harvesting”, admitting uncircumcised Gentiles the “wheat” and the “barley” to the ministry. Revelation 1:16, 2:12.
A lantern was used for study of the scriptures, called the "eyes" as it was held beside the eyes. It had a flame inside, fuelled by oil. Standing upright, it was encased in metal, with a glass shutter. When the shutter was opened, the "eyes were opened", implying also intellectual enlightenment. Celibates and monastics used it at their noon sacred meal, when the scriptures were read out , as Christian monasteries continued to do. But Therapeuts and village workers had no midday meal, only early morning and evening meals. The glass shutter was closed at noon. As this prevented the light being seen, the glass shutter was called "a tear in the eyes". To "weep" (shed tears) was to close the shutter, ensuring that there was no noon meal. Jesus as the chief layman had this duty, so "wept" (shed tears) in John 11:35 at the tomb of Lazarus, which lay at some distance from the meal chamber. It was "God", head of celibates and monastics, who "opened the eyes", held the celibate noon meal, wiped "away the tear from the eyes" (Revelation 7:17; 21:4).
The leader of the "sheep", village pilgrims. Jesus while living in the village in the married state, John 10:11. Plu.rep, the Chief Therapeut, who acted in the positions of the David when he was not in the village, Luke 2:8.
Appear as a priest, like the Light. Revelation 1:16.
The seashore at the watergate at Mazin, at the beginning of the jetty. "At the shore" at the end of the jetty. John 21:4.
Instruct a subordinate. Revelation 1:1, 4:1.
In Revelation 14:14, 17a sharp sickle, an object for initiating Asher Gentiles as "wheat". In Revelation 14:16 without "sharp" initiating Dan Gentiles,
The waterbag worn at Jesus' right side, hanging from a belt, such as was always carried by a travelling missionary (John 19:34). It was intended that the crucified man should stay alive for some days, so his friends were permitted to hook on to his waterbag with a stick and bring it up to his mouth. John 20:20, part of the equipment of a missionary.
A Hebrew letter indicating the classes. Aleph Priests. Beth Levites. Gimel (G used like C) Graduates. D married laity of the congregation.
When Gentiles were first admitted to the ascetic community and wished to say prayers at set times like Jewish celibates they were instructed that their prayers must be silent, because Heaven would only want to hear the Jewish prayers. They were given an intermediate time for their silent prayers, on the half-hour not on the hour. The practice was retained at the time of writing Revelation 8:1, "There was silence in Heaven at a half-hour". Their silent prayers were at :30 and also at :35 after the :05 beginning. Hence the term is one of the methods of giving a time. At his trials before priests Jesus observed the silent prayer on behalf of Gentiles, and it was also a convenient method of deferring questions put to him. At his trial by rules of the Therapeuts he gave spoken prayers at these times, as an expression of the equality of Gentiles with Jews. Mark 14:61, Matthew 26:63.
The tithes paid to a levite. Gold was paid to a priest, silver to a levite, copper to a presbyter. Paid to Judas Iscariot the levite , Matthew 27:5.
Sing. sexual intercourse, from the point of view of celibates. Plu. rep. the state of willingness for sex. Renounced at the vow of celibacy, Acts 26:18. Having sex contrary to the strict Essene rules. It was possible to commit fornication with a wife (4Q270 fr 7) by not observing the rule of separation between births, or by sexual intercourse during menstruation (CD 5:5-6).
adō is the verb "to sing", ōdē is the noun "song". Hold the choral liturgy of the Therapeuts, with choirs of men and women singing the Song of Moses and the Song of Miriam, Philo Contemplative Life 83-89. Revelation 14:3
A married man, the opposite of a permanently celibate "saint". Peter in Luke 5:8. Jesus in John 9:16, 24. Plu.rep. Luke 24:7, given into the hands of sinful men, go into the married state.
A woman married to a dynast who kept the rule of sexual abstinence except for procreation was in the relationship of a "sister" to him. 1 Corinthians 9:5 such a man "led around a wife as Sister". John 19:25 Helena in her relationship to Simon Magus was a Sister. The term was preserved in Christian celibate practice.
The action of a member of the congregation, who sat during services, while the officiant stood. Acts 2:2.
The western gibbet at the crucifixions stood on the 9 am line 3 cubits down from the segment line (Figure 2B). It was on this line at the latrines that a skull hung, to show the division of the cubicles between those for the priests and those for the "unclean" visiting pilgrims. Another cubit down, on row 4, the name Golgotha was used, a Hebrew word for Skull. The word "place" topos always meant an "unclean" row. Thus, since a genitive relationship Y of X meant that Y was a grade or cubit below X, the "place of the Skull" meant that topos-Golgotha was on row 4 and the Greek Skull on row 3. It was between these two rows that the gibbet of Jesus stood, a tree trunk 1 cubit thick.
Be a worker in the mission who owned no property belonging to the monastery. It could be applied to celibate graduates acting as cardinals called priests in the Diaspora. They were one of the classes of "slaves" sent to the Vineyard, graduates accepted as priests because of the shortage of men of levitical birth in the Diaspora. They received tithes. Plu. rep. Luke 15:22, Acts 2:18, John 4:51; 18:18 John Mark in the role of cardinal, holding separate common property for Gentile monastics. The other class were married men working at a job and earning wages, so not receiving the stipend of the "hired servants". Sing. Luke 14:16, Revelation 22:9. Plu rep a married man, Revelation 19:5; 22:3.
Slay, Slain Ones
To remove a man from his position, unjustly. Different from "kill", excommunicate. The Lamb slain (Revelation 5:6,12) refers to the practice behind Isaiah 53:7 concerning a lamb led to the slaughter, in one of the Suffering Servant passages. As is known from Enuma Elish, the Babylonian Creation epic , it was the custom for a king in the Ancient Near East to be annually stripped of his regalia, publicly humiliated, and forced to prove that during the previous year he had not misused his office. When Jesus as the Lamb was "slain", he was unjustly accused of not being the legitimate David heir. In Revelation 18:24 "All Ones" (pantes) were "slain", removed from office. The context indicates that Antipas the third Herod, whose house was on Tiber Island, lost his position. This was in June, 72 AD. Other details in the context indicate that Antipas had been sheltering the aged Jesus in his house, and that Jesus had died shortly before. There was then a re-alignment of parties between the houses of Agrippa and Bernice, and Antipas was deposed as the third Herod.
To sleep at night as a married villager, not a celibate holding an all-night vigil. Mark 14:37,40; 14:41; Luke 22:46; Matthew 26:40,43; 26:45.
Sleep as a levitical deacon at the village bedtime. Luke 22:45. 9 pm in Matthew 28:13. Peter at 9 pm in Acts 12:6.
Acting at 5 pm or 5 am, as the opposite to "quick". Luke 24:25.
The Egyptian ritual of smashing clay dishes for magical effects. Revelation 2:27.
attack an inferior person. Acts 12:23 Agrippa I by Simon Magus, Revelation 19:15 the head of Japheth.
The incense used by Gentiles at their services on Friday afternoons, near the place of the smoking furnace north of the Qumran vestry. Their incense, standing for prayer, was said to be merely "smoke" as it broke the sabbath, so was not prayer that heaven would accept. Revelation 9:2, Acts 2:19. On other days than Friday, the sign of heaven's rejection of the prayer of a serious sinner, Revelation 14:11.
Antipas showing hostility to James beside him. Luke 23:35.
Refers to Dan 7:9, the Ancient of Days, the Zadokite ruler of the solar calendar, whose garments were white as snow. Matthew 28:3 for Simon Magus. In Revelation 1:14 the description is applied to Jesus, meaning that he had taken over the role of the Zadokite. Heb 7:11-17 argues for his right to do so.
As "These Ones" hoi outoi are Dan Gentiles in the west seat, tosoutoi are Asher Gentiles in the same seat. John 6:9. In Luke 15:29 with "years", the chronology of these Gentiles.
Defile garments by nocturnal emission, according to the definition of Temple Scroll 45:7. Revelation 3:4.
Singular, King Agrippa. Plu. rep. Merari (Ananus the Younger) in Agrippa's service. John 19:32,34 , Mark 15:16.
The military leader in the status of a Gershon or prince. Merari in his capacity as a guard to Herod. Luke 23:11. Revelation 19:19. plu. rep. the younger brother of Jesus Justus, as his crown prince, in charge of his military forces.
A deputy. "Son of God", Jesus as the deputy to "God", the Annas priest. "Son of Man", the David as deputy to the "Adam", the Man, a title for celibate graduates teaching Gentiles as "Adam". Sons 2, Luke 15:11, the grade 2 deputy abbot , Theudas.
The Magus as an enemy of the Herodian monarchy. Simon Magus the "leper" in Luke16:21, the Magus with Bernice Revelation 16:2.
The status of kingship, a man as a higher Adam, who "became a living soul" (Gen 2:7 Heb and LXX). Acts 2:27; 20:10; Luke 12: 20. Plu. rep. for claimant to kingship acting as Adam, Acts 2:41; 7:14.
Alexandria, as the main capitals were designated by their compass points. Acts 27:13, Revelation 21:13.
To give a spoken prayer on the hour, by contrast with the silent prayer that was given on the half-hour (Revelation 8:1). Only Jewish celibates gave the spoken prayer at the times determined by their calendar. It was permitted to Gentiles such as James Niceta to pray at the set times, but his must be a silent prayer as Heaven would not listen to a Gentile. Matthew 28:18. In Acts 2:4 following a change in tradition a spoken prayer was given on the half-hour.
Vomit. Allusion to the poisoning of Agrippa I by Nicolaus-Blastus his eunuch. Revelation 3:16.
Spices were the symbol of proselytes, men who had not been born Jews but had adopted all aspects of Jewish identity including circumcision. As Jewish initiates offered their prayers in place of orthodox animal sacrifices, calling these "an offering of the lips like a pleasant aroma" (1QS 9:4-5), proselytes offered their own prayers, symbolized by the spices.
A priest who officiated with the Therapeuts at their meetings, when there was ecstatic behavior, was said to be under the influence of the Spirit. The word meant that this person had authority to be a bishop of the Therapeuts in their abbeys. With "holy" added, he was a celibate. The status differed according to the uses of the article. With both articles, to pneuma to hagion meant the abbot, at grade 1, Luke 10:21, Acts 1:16; 13:2. Without any articles, the rule for a servant or a person "in the body" applied, pneuma hagion meaning a celibate servant of the abbot, a lay bishop. Filled with , plēstheis, a provincial bishop, later than a lay bishop, Acts 2:4; 9:17; 13:9. The office was given also to women and Gentiles. Luke 1:41; John 20:22, Acts 2:4. In the intermediate form to hagion pneuma, it meant a levitical bishop, Matthew Annas as the Kohath, Matthew 28:19, Acts 13:4. To pneuma alone means the Sariel priest in the village, in the position of a deputy to the Zadokite. John19:30; Acts 2:4,17. Spirit 7 Matthew Annas as the abbot of Ephesus province 7, Revelation 1:4. Spirit of Life Revelation 11:11 the Chief Therapeut Apollos, formerly a deputy abbot, now promoted to abbot, the position of a priest or celibate.
In places where there were no immersion cisterns, the spit of a holy man replaced holy water (John 9:6). It could purify a layman, but the same process was used to laicise a priest. This was done to Annas in Mark 14:65. In Matthew 26:67 and Mark 15:19 it was done to Jesus for his claims to priesthood.
A word used for "royal" in Luke 23:11 for the garments put mockingly on Jesus, both scarlet and purple, as for a queen (Bernice) in Revelation 17:4. In Revelation 22:16, the heir of Jesus is called the "royal morning Star".
A word used for a political schism, symbolized by the curtain of the Essene north-south sanctuary divided east-west. John 19:24; 21:11; Mark 1:10; 15:38, Luke 23:45.
Wearing a white surplice as a celibate dynast. Revelation 14:5.
The better text of Revelation 19:13 reads "sprinkled", not "dipped". It means that red marks were placed on a surplice. It may be suggested to refer to the original Knights Templar, who had red crosses on their white garments.
The Greek measure of distance, 600 Greek feet (= c.607 English feet). A set of 5 stadia was the normal method of measuring a distance of about a kilometer, John 6:19; 11:5. It was the distance from the Mount of Olives across to the city of Jerusalem (Antiquities. 20, 169). As 3000 Greek feet, approximately 3000 English feet, the distance was about 1000 yards, or 2000 cubits. A boundary of 2000 cubits outside the city is set down in CD 11:5.
Act as a priest or celibate qualified to offer prayers.
Express an opposing opinion. Acts 2:7.
Be a celibate, from monastic initiation upwards.
The emblem of the royal Davids. Joseph acting as the Star wearing the emblem, Matthew 2:9. The David as the Morning Star, Revelation 22:16. Acts 7:43 the Star, David, in Damascus as in CD 7:17-18.
The first of the series of verbs "to see", used for the number of cubits between person seeing and what is seen. To "stare" meant closeness with one cubit between. Luke 22:56.
Speak in the status of a non-minister.
A saying given to a person in the married class, not the logos of a dynast. Mark 14:72, Luke 2:19.
A name from "the Crown" used by Jonathan Annas in his insistence that the Sadducee high priest should retain the same position as Ananus the Elder had held in 6 AD, the sole local ruler under the Romans, both priest and king. Acts 6:5, 11:19; 22:20. In John 4:46 he appears as the Royal One, basilikos, claiming the same role against Agrippa.
Remain unforgiven. Luke 10:11, Revelation 18:5.
A play on letters meaning a Gentile permitted by Sadducee rules to be an extra a 13th at the table. Luke 14:22, Luke15:20b, Luke 24:41, 44. Acts 2:26. Revelation 22:11, the word used 4 times to refer to 4 different missionaries as the "wheels" of the chariot, going to 4 directions of the world.
By a play on words wiith pa, meaning a child or novice, punish by demoting to novice grade Revelation 9:5. As a noun, kentron, bishop’s staff for striking the man to be demoted, Revelation 9:10
To cause or approve a popular demonstration, such as was led by the Chief Therapeut at a time he attempted a "miraculous crossing of Jordan". Acts 12:18. John 13:21; Luke 24:38
Influence to a different doctrine. Mark 15:11; Luke 23:5.
The round stone, 1 cubit in diameter, blocking the western shaft in cave 8Q. It corresponded to the Rock at the eastern shaft. Since the testicles were commonly spoken of as "stones", and these were said to be on row 13 in the imagery of the Heavenly Man, the image of stones was used at corresponding places. Pilgrims and Gentiles belonged on this row. At Mird-Hyrcania their initiation ceremony was performed at the two tunnels dug into the banks of the wady, treated as birth passages for their "second birth". At this very stony region where nothing would grow, the "stony ground" of the Sower parable was at this place. Mark 4:5.
Stand on the eastern cubit and lean sideways into the western cubit. Luke 24:12. John 20:5,11.
Acts 9:10, referring to Jewish pilgrims to the monasteries, who followed some discipline including walking north-south or east-west in a + shape, not the X shape of lower grades. The superior pilgrims said prayers at the fixed hours. Their hours are designated by euthys, eutheōs.
Acts 9:10, the uncovered path within the monastery grounds along which pilgrim leaders walked to reach the north base.
The east-west path in front of the north base, taken by those in good standing going into and out of the vestry. Luke 10:10, Acts 5:15. Revelation 21:21; 22:2.
One of the four positions listed in Mark 12:30, "heart, soul, mind and strength". These were the positions of different kinds of ministers. In the imagery of the Heavenly Man "heart" and "strength" were on row 10 upper, west and east respectively, "soul" and "mind "on the head, east and west respectively. The four formed a mnemonic X. John 21:6 a person acting in the Strength position. The adjective ischyros, "strong", refers to this position, that of a grade 3 levite, so with "famine" in Luke 15:14 it indicates September the priestly season. The comparative "stronger", ischyroteros means grade 2. In Mark 1:7 the David as a Lord grade 2 on the west, subordinate of the Baptist grade 0-1. Prince Agrippa aged 16, Revelation 10:1.
To touch with a disciplinary rod. Luke 18:13; 23:48; Mark 15:19; Matthew 27:30.
Play on "This One", a layman. Revelation 18:17.
Acts 2:2. The moment when the doors of the meeting hall in the hermitage were opened at the end of the all night service, letting in a rush of fresh air.
Noon, when the cover over the vestry was removed and the sun shone down. Acts 9:3, Luke 2:13.
Essene monastics renouncing marriage and property were likened to the Suffering Servant of Isaiah 53 in 1QS 8:1-3. Their virtue atoned for the sins of others. One of the Suffering Servants was the Lamb of Isaiah 53:7, a role always played by the king in the ancient rite of sacral kingship. The title was used of Jesus as the David, the Christ, the Messiah of Israel. He used the term "suffer" with his title "Christ" to mean that he had to return to the monastery, in Luke 24:26,46. Other dynasts had to "suffer" from the celibate discipline in the same way. Paul in Acts 9:16.
A lay bishop appointed on merit, not by levitical birth. Luke 15:19,21.
Revelation 14:10, sulphur meaning Sodom, marking a homosexual. Revelation 19:20; 20:10, lake of fire and sulphur, the Dead Sea opposite Mazin and Masada, believed to be on the line of the original Sodom, destroyed by fire and sulphur (brimstone), Genesis 19:24.
Title of Simon Magus as the Zadokite, in charge of the solar calendar. Mark 16:2, Luke 23:45, Acts 2:20; 26:13. Helena was the "Moon" to Simon's "Sun", Clem. Rec. 2, 8-9. Mark 4:6 the Magus preceding Simon Magus. The Magus successor of Simon Magus in Rome, Revelation 19:17. In Judea, John the Essene, Revelation 16:8,12. Or the alternate Magus, Atomus in the court of Agrippa II Revelation 10:1.
Supper, have Supper
The evening meal of Therapeuts. deipnon 6 pm at the common table, John 13:2. Verb deipneō 8 pm at the holy table, Luke 22:20. Or 1 am in the abbey on a special occasion. Revelation 19:17.
Monastic Essenes avoided swearing (Jewish War2, 135) , "swearing is avoided by them"). Peter as a married man was not bound by this rule, and demonstrated his married status in Mark 14:71. A solemn oath of loyalty was sworn at the time of initiation of Herodians following the practice of Essene at the time of initiation Jewish War 2, 139-142. Revelation 10:6.
Since the row Jesus was on was called Gethsemane as the "wine-press of oil", his willingness for martyrdom evoked the "blood" of fermented wine, and his sweat corresponded to oil, for the Essene monastic rule forbade oil on the skin because it was like sweat forbidden to priests. (Ezekiel 44:18, Jewish War2, 123 (Whiston War, 2, viii, 3, bad mistranslation; Loeb they make a point of keeping a dry skin). Luke 22:44 in the added verses not in Vaticanus.
Revelation 12:4. Act as if sweeping debris from a floor, expressing disgust.
New Wine Revelation 10:9.
Antipas Herod, who when in Rome did as the Romans did, breaking Jewish food laws and eating pigmeat. Mark 5:11, Luke 15:15
Showing the effects of poisoning, as in Acts 28:6, the viper bite on Malta was expected to cause swelling. In Acts 1:18 the word means "swollen", but because it was not understood that Judas had been poisoned, it has been translated "falling headlong".
In Genesis 3:24 the sword of the cherubim turning in all directions barred the way to Eden when Adam was cast out of it. The "Eden", the school for celibate Gentiles, met in loc 86, the annexe to the outer hall at Qumran. When it was necessary to prevent false teachers from coming down into it, as in the case of James-Malchus, a sword was placed across the doorway on row 12. The sword was used for the exclusion and exile of a non-celibate anti-Herodian Gentile in Acts 12:2.
The power of the David to discipline Gentiles, a lesser power than that of the Priest, who used a machaira as his instrument of exclusion. Luke 2:35, Revelation 1:16; 19:15,21.
A synagogue of the ascetic movement accepting proselytes. The original one was established by Hillel inside the Essene Gate on the lower slope of Mount Zion. A reproduction was built at Mar Saba, on the lowest shelf. Whereas a monastic meal-room lay north-south, a synagogue was an east-west hall. In the singular form, the word means a synagogue of the Hebrews, where the Hebrew Old Testament was read, and attached proselytes were required to be circumcised. In the plural form it means a synagogue of the Hellenists, where the Greek Septuagint was read, and women were given ministry. The north wing of Ain Feshkha survives, in compartments as the Essenes constructed their synagogues (Philo Every Good Man 81), with the entry for leaders at the east end and the sections for low grades such as women at the west end. In Luke 24:25 the pair of leaders stood at the east end, with the superior on the long north side, the subordinate south of him.
The word meaning "what" or "why" is used in the pesher to signify the Greek letter T and its political associations. It gave the sign of the cross, used by the Greek-speaking pro-Roman party. It derived from the fact that the original Hebrew initiation letter was Taw, the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet given at the highest stage of education. It was in the shape X, the archaic form of Taw. Drawn on the forehead, it was believed that it would give protection to initiates at the coming world destruction, Ezekiel 9:4; CD 19:12. Since it was pronounced as "t" , those using Greek only substituted the shape of the Greek letter T. Being the shape of a cross, it became a powerful symbol following the crucifixion.
In the wilderness Israel had had a moveable tent, a tabernacle for worship, and when they arrived in the Promised Land they eventually built a fixed stone temple. The courtyard at Qumran, loc 111, conforms exactly to the dimensions and structure of the wilderness tabernacle. When they were exiled to Qumran the Zadokite priests established a tabernacle, making it north-south to show that it was not a true east-west temple. The belief that they were exiles having no fixed temple was preserved among Diaspora Jews. In Acts 2:26 the verb with kata expresses their attitudes. Reproduced in the Rome house of Agrippa I, Revelation 12:12.
When a Gentile 13th was added to the 12 men at the wide tables in the vestry, a 1x1 cubit square table was added for the elements of their special form of communion using crumbs and fragments only. It also contained their cup of fermented wine, understood as a blood sacrifice corresponding to the blood sprinkled on the 1x1 incense altar in the sanctuary (Exodus 30:2). The word trapeza was used for this table, placed in the middle of row 12 of the vestry and in corresponding other places (Luke 19:23; 22:21)
A deputy acting as a train-bearer to an Annas priest. Revelation 9:19,12:4.
To sip the fermented wine at the sacred meal, not drink a full cup. As is shown in Luke 14:24, a boy aged 13 (Joseph the Nemo in 31 BC) was permitted to sip the wine, only. Since Gentiles were the equivalent of boys, they also sipped at their sacred meal, and the sip of wine was combined with the bread, not at separate hours as in Essene monastic practice. Peter as the pilgrim equal of of Gentiles "sipped" in Acts 10:10. As the method for Gentiles, it became the practice of Christians. Matthew 27:34.
The set tithes paid by workers, a form of taxation (CD 14:12-16) intended for the welfare funds and misappropriated by Agrippa as "Caesar", so forbidden by Jesus to be given to him. Luke 23:2.
a Greek particle, was used as a play on ti, as the form used by Jewish Christians in Jerusalem speaking Greek and mispronouncing the vowel. It adds information to a place name, that it is a place for Greek-speaking Jews.
Be a priest acting as teacher when he was in the outside world. In CD 1:10-11 the Zadokite acting as Teacher of Righteousness. Used of Jesus as a rival to the Baptist.
A document called the Teaching (Didache) of the Twelve Apostles, preserved from pre-Christian times, contained the teaching for celibate Gentiles headed by John Mark, Apostle 12. John 18:19, Acts 2:42.
tear physically, as cloth. Mark 14:63; Matthew 26:65.
(Noun) See “shed tears dakryō”. A “tear in the eye” was the closed glass shutter of the noon study lamp. Revelation 7:17
hardened bread fragments for Gentiles, given at the end of the sacred meal, Revelation 9:8.
The north base outside the vestry, at either Qumran or in Jerusalem, where the annual temple tax paid at the time of atonement was placed.
See Figure 15B, the rows in the congregation annexe going downwards, each one standing for a descent into marriage or sin. On row 13 men were initiated and so "saved", but the novice belonged on row 14, that of Temptation, where he was still free to choose between celibacy and marriage. If he gave way he became a Sinner on row 15 and married on row 16. Luke 22:28. The verb peirazō, test for promotion Revelation 2:2 ,3:10. The words in the Lord’s Prayer (Matthew 6:13, Luke 11:4) , “Lead us not into temptation, peirasmos”, have the pesher “Do not require a celibate to marry”.
Damascus on the NE podium was one of the 10 taxed provinces of the original Herodian system. It seceded at the time of the assassination of Agrippa I in 44 AD. Revelation 11:13.
Give the blessing at the Eucharist, the 9 pm part of the sacred meal, for the sacred wine. Matthew 26:26, Revelation 4:9, 11:17.
The superior of a pair, the one in the east seat. "And That One", combining ekeinos with kai, "and", means an additional That One. In Acts 5:37, Judas the Galilean.
The later occurrence of a pair of times. When the hour began at both :00 and :05, it is used for :05. When a session of teaching began on the zero and again an hour later, it is used for the later hour. Matthew 27:58, 4.05 pm. Acts 1:12 4.05 pm. In John 13:27, the repeated giving of the morsel (part of the rite of unleavened bread) at 9 pm after it had been given at 8 pm, the 9 pm rite being for Therapeuts who always used the later hour.
The position of a teacher on the north base, by contrast with a deputy enteuthen on his east, Revelation 22:2. In John 19:18 at the crucifixion enteuthen is used for the deputy Judas Iscariot on the eastern cross as "other Two", and the word is repeated for Simon Magus as the priest in the center,.
Of a pair of positions, the east one. Matthew 26:36 the east side of the doorway in the outer hall. Matthew 26:71 the east guest position beside the witness position. In the Epistle of James 2:2,3 there is a distinction between “Poor” and “Rich” expressed by “there”, ekei, and “here”, hōde, respectively. A rich man comes into a synagogue and is invited to “sit here” (hōde), while a poor man is told to “stand there” (ekei). “Here” was the western one of two positions, and meant the congregation of the east-west synagogue, where married men sat. They were “rich”, having private property. “There” was the eastern end of the east-west synagogue, where the minister stood to lead worship. He was “poor” as a celibate who was permitted ministry. These are the words of Brother James as a Jewish Christian, preserving synagogues but allowing the ministry of uncircumcised Gentiles. In Revelation 12:6 "there" (ekei) has the meaning of a place for the Poor, hermits, whose studies as hermits in retreat qualified them for ministry.
Frequent in John's gospel for a grade 7 celibate initiate.
A militant following the 1-6AD anti-Roman uprising, who used mission money to buy arms for warfare. Theudas in his militant mode John 18:40, Luke 22:52, Matthew 26:55. Judas in John 12:6. Plu. rep. Judas to Theudas who was sing. thief. Mark 15:27, Matthew 27:38,44.
As with all parts of the body, an object placed at the part, a ceremonial sword as a sign of kingship, not the disciplining sword called rhomphaia. In Revelation 19:16 it is used for a military sword carried by Jesus Justus. As in the weapons of the War Scroll, a name was carved on it.
Hold as a doctrine. Luke 24:37. Acts 22:20; 26:9.
At a time for the third in a series, in descending order of status. For Peter and John Mark solarists, on the hour. John 21:14 ēdē triton at 6 am for 9 am the third hour. John 21:17 at 3 pm. Luke 23:22, at 9 am, the third hour after 7 and 8 am. Matthew 26:44 shows that for James Niceta of Asher Gentiles, the third falls on the half-hour, their time for prayer, as the third of three half-hours. Ek tritou here means 11:35 pm, the time for the third sermon of the three for 10:35 pm (John 21:15), 11:05 pm (John 21:16) and 11:35 pm (John 21:17). A Gentile minister of Dan or Asher leading prayer at 3 am at the northern triangle of the NE podium outside the time circle, Revelation 8:7.
Thirst, Thirsty One
Be a pilgrim, one who was thirsty after traveling to Qumran through the wilderness, and was given a ritual drink of holy water from the well at 3 pm each day while he was there. Revelation 22:17.
This One, These Things
houtos, houtoi, tauta
A new subject, not referring back.Of the two village leaders who sat at the center of row 13 at village meetings, the levitical superior on the east center was called That One, ekeinos, and the lay deputy on the west center This One, houtos. The word is used for different persons while they were in this status. Jesus in Matthew 27:47,54 ; Acts 2:23. James acting for Jesus, Luke 23:51; 24:4, Matthew 27:58. Theudas in Luke 23:41; 24:4, John 21:21, Saul Acts 9:15. Plu. Rep. "these ones", houtoi, the celibate "eunuch" acting for the king. John Mark representing Jesus. Acts 1:22; 2:15. With "all", Thomas in Luke 24:14. In Acts 9:21 a "Not This One" is a " That One" in the eastern seat, as "not" negates a noun or pronoun so as to give the opposite. Plural tauta, "these things", lay matters and their time, John 20:31. In John 19:38 the hour for teaching laymen 3 pm. In John 21:1 the lay day of the council days, the 30th, Monday June 1. Using the Julian calendar, meta with tauta means the next day starting at midnight.
The headband worn by all graduates had a letter standing up at the center indicating their grade. For graduates the letter was Qof. A thorn could be bent into the shape of the Hebrew letter. The grade was given to Gentiles by Sadducees, who were put under the strict discipline of the abbot, an Annas priest. He was consequently associated with thorns, so Jonathan Annas was Paul's "thorn in the flesh". (2 Corinthians 12:7). The "crown of thorns" put on Jesus was the garland of an emperor, still with the grade letter (John 19:2)
Head of proselytes , the higher leaders of the myriads of 30 000. Revelation 5:11.
Moral teaching by threats of hellfire. Acts 9:1.
A third time, after one occurrence at each hour of three. Mark 14:72 , Acts 10:16.
The footstool in front of the royal throne, for the king’s feet. The 4x4 cubit space began with the 2 cubit wide footstool at the center of row 4 on the upper floor, then the 2 cubit wide throne seat on row 3. Hence the term throne was used for the beginning of the 4x4 space. When the king was represented by a priest or cardinal on the throne seat, his deputy sat on the footstool, either alone or as a pair. The east footstool was called Throne, singular, Revelation 1:4. The west footstool or its equivalent plu rep Thrones. Revelation 11:16, 20:4.
with gen. In the middle of. In Acts 1:3, day of 40 days, day 20, the middle day of the 40 days fasting.
Exclude from the higher platform for ministry, as if thrown to the ground. Mark 9:42; Revelation 12:4; 14:19; 20:14.
Revelation 10:1, 11:3. To vest another man in a surplice, the head opening held at the “around” position, at the NE point on the head. Such ritual accompanied all actions during worship.
The Annas cardinal at 3 pm. As the timekeeper at 3 am, the time for workers to begin their day, he was called Cloud by Day, dressed in white, but at the night part of the day, beginning at 3 pm for workers, he was dressed in black and treated as a Thunder Cloud. As a Diaspora priest he guided pilgrims.Thunder gave the final Hallelujah on behalf of pilgrims in Revelation 19:6. Gentile pilgrims of Asher had been called Sons of Thunder, Boanerges, in the gospel period (Mark 3:17). John 12:29 "it thundered", was a way of indicating that it was 3 pm, when the Annas priest called Cloud changed into black garments. The pair of cardinals alternating in east and west, usually called Cloud and Lightning, - the Annas and the Magus - could also be called Thunder and Lightning. Matthew Annas was Thunder 7 in Revelation 10:3.
A play on Hebrew ken, "yes", referring to the "yes" levite , who gave admissions easily, as opposed to the "no" levite Raphael (Judas Iscariot), who refused admissions.
All words for time have a very precise meaning in terms of the solar and lunisolar calendars. Chronos means a generation of 40 years, the divisions of historical time used by the Therapeuts for their Exodus imagery.Acts 13:18. In Acts 1:21 with All, the Herodian generation 3971.
The 31st of the solar calendar, as the Today on which prophecy should be fulfilled. In this scheme the 30th was called Yesterday, the 31st Today, and the 1st Tomorrow.
Time 3 am and 3 pm. In Acts 2:43,47 using the solar 31st 3 pm or 3.05. With kath hēmeran v.47 both Julian and solar dates used together.
Extreme acts of asceticism of higher Nazirites even more severe than the "works" of ordinary Nazirites. Revelation 14:13 concerning James brother of Jesus, Revelation 16:10 concerning Ananus the Younger, a Nazirite, as is shown for him under the name of Zacchaeus in Luke 19:4, on the sycamore tree.
As explained in "structure of the caves", the eastern half of the centrally hinged iron door to the pair of caves was called "the tomb" as it closed the dungeon. There was also a play on Egypt as the place of tombs, the pyramids, and the iron furnace of Egypt, Deuteronomy 4:20. Plu.rep mnēmeia the western door, Matthew 27: 53. Mnēma means the western half-door when folded in over the eastern half-door, in order to keep the western cave open. The eastern door was then doubled, in either its open or closed position. Luke 24:1, Acts 2:29. New tomb, John 19:41, Matthew 27:60, the dungeon door when it was claimed by James, the acting heir of David, a member of the Herodian New Covenant, to take possession of the king's treasury. Apo tou mnēmeiou, "from the tomb", at the western half-door , the opposite of the eastern half-door (see from) when it had been closed at 4.05 am (Mark 16:8, Luke 24:9). In the form mnēma, cave 8, the western cave. Luke 24:1, Acts 7:16.
The solar 1st of the month, Yesterday 30th, Today 31st, Tomorrow 1st. Promotion day for priests.
Following the introduction of the Julian calendar, the following day began at midnight, although it was the same day for the Jewish solar calendar. This fact was used to give higher status to some ministers, expressed in Matthew's version of the Lord's Prayer, 6:11 meaning literally "give us tomorrow's bread today". The promotions given on the 31st of the month (Today) were now given at midnight beginning the 1st of the month, so conferred the status of priests. In Acts 7:26 tē epiousē hēmera means midnight beginning December 1, the 12th Julian month corresponding to the 12th hour.
According to CD 14:9-10 the bishop of all the camps, that is village and Diaspora members, had to master the languages of all their sub-groups. He was a missionary to the Diaspora, so would need the various foreign languages in order to communicate. On the Day of Pentecost, Acts 2:3, "speaking in tongues" meant the revolutionary change of allowing foreign language speakers who had become initiates to hold services in their own languages. Mark's gospel was written in Greek for Roman initiates to use in their services. It was referred to as "tongues". The word means Mark's gospel in Revelation 14:6; 16:10.
A container for the fees of proselytes, which at first were kept separate from the money of Jews, even though proselytes adopted Jewish ways. John 13:29. They spoke in foreign languages, "tongues", so their coins were marked differently. A hoard of Tyrian coins was found in loc 120 at Qumran.
The levite who carried a flaming torch as a guide to pilgrims in the dark, representing the "fire by night". The Scribe Eleazar in John 18:3.
bazanizō(verb), basanismos (noun) Suffering of an ascetic like a woman in childbirth. Revelation 21:4. 1QH 11 3: 1-12 develops the imagery extensively. A mother begins a simulated labor for the Bar Mitvah of her son. Revelation 12:2.
with accus. The position in the cubit or space below, south to north. This word is a major indicator of positions, always having this meaning. With dat., in a row where pros is used, beside the next cubit in the same line. John 20:11,12, Luke 23:52.
A bishop when outside the monastery wearing a colored cassock wore a linen sash over it instead of the leather belt of outside laymen. The sash did not contain pockets for money as the leather belt did, showing that the bishop did not keep money for himself. He used his sash to wipe the jar of welfare tithes, the "feet", when he had received it, in order to make it "pure". (John 13:3)
To act as Romans did, according to 1QpHab 3:10, devastating the property of conquered peoples. Revelation 14:20; 19:15. Gentiles flouting Jewish ritual or monastic laws. The corresponding Hebrew word is used of Gentiles in 4QpNah 1:4-5. Revelation 11:2.
Translate Hebrew into a Greek term having a pesher. Mark 15:22,34.
To trap, recruit or gain power over one likened to an animal, the "Lion" head of the "Beasts", the king. Jesus as Lion of Judah in John 8:20. Agrippa as king in John 21:3,10.
Be a missionary to the Diaspora.
The former north base interpreted in Revelation 22:2 as a tree in Eden when the David as Adam stood on it. He acted there as a teacher, so for him it was the Tree of Knowledge (Genesis 2:17). When the "Eve", whose name means Life, stood on it to teach, it was the Tree of Life.(Genesis 3:22). The same word in Hebrew, ets, means both "tree and "wood", The proselyte who stoked up the fire with wood was called "wood" in Mark 14:43, Luke 23:31. An “Adam” in th Garden of Eden, the school for monastic Gentiles attached to a Magian monastery. Revelation 7:1.
A name for the Chief Therapeut as an elderly man. Mark 16:8. "Fear and trembling" refers to two grades of Therapeuts.
An ascetic order, one of the twelve "tribes" set out in the Temple Scroll plan of the temple courts. They had the names of the original 12 tribes of Israel, although in a different arrangement from any found in the Old Testament. Judean urban society was no longer tribal. The names were adopted for ascetic orders to which initiates were admitted, an artificial system completed under Herod the Great. The meeting place for each was in the original tribal area. Acts 13:21, the tribe of Benjamin, the Herodian order to which Hillel, Gamaliel, and later Paul belonged, with its meeting place in Herod's palace in Jericho in the tribal area of Benjamin. See Revelation chapter 7 for the 12 ascetic orders according to the Book of Revelation.
Ascetic suffering likened to labor pains of a woman Revelation 1:9
A tribune in the organization based on the Roman army was in charge of 1000 men, the meaning of chiliarch. For the ascetics he was the head of a "tribe", ascetic order, containing 1000. In the Herodian system it was the deputy to the Herod, Eleazar the levite in John 18:12. Agrippa II himself holding both grades in Acts 21:31.
The compulsory tax imposed on Judea by Rome following the Occupation of 6 AD. The word formed part of a play on words, making "worship" proskyneō mean pay the tribute, and so worship the emperor. In the saying on tribute to Caesar in Mark 12:14, a coin of Agrippa I was shown. When he co-operated with Rome he could use the title Caesar as an eastern representative of Rome, but he constantly changed his policies and could act as an enemy of Rome. The pesher of the saying "Render to Caesar." is that the pro-Roman party of Jesus should support Agrippa I when he was in the same mood as theirs. It was paid in the 7th year of a king.
Be troubled because of the conflict with Agrippa. Mark 14:33. A play on dēmas, a name for Merari-Demas the servant of Agrippa,Acts 12:22, 2 Timothy 4:10.
The trumpet used to announce the date at the edge of the higher or upper floor. The practice was extended from Leviticus 25:9 to cover other great dates. Revelation 8:6.
alētheia, alēthōs, alēthes
The three stages of Gentile promotion were called the Way (deacon), the Truth (presbyter) and the Life (bishop). John 14:6. Truthful, a Christian following the Truth, Revelation 3:7; 19:2; 21:5; 22:6.
The stages of initiation were accompanied by added garments that became vestments. A married man outside, a pre-initiate worker at grade 9, wore only a loincloth, and was said to be "naked" because Adam and Eve outside the garden were naked (Genesis 2:25) and because he was permitted to have sex. Simon Magus reduced to this grade as a punishment was "naked" (Mark 14:52). In the next grade up, that of a pre-initiate novice at grade 8, a man wore a sindōn, a short tunic over the upper half of his body. He was then a "young man", neaniskos, meaning novice. In Mark 14:51 Simon Magus had been reduced to this grade. The sindōn in which Jesus' "body" was wrapped (Mark 15:46) was a short linen vest, enough to wrap the "body", the monstrance for Gentile communion.
Without prefix, to turn in a straight line, due east. Luke 22:61; 23:28. Due north, John 20:16. With prefix epi or hypo to turn in a diagonal direction,With epi, "turn upon", turn on the NW-SE axis. With hypo, "turn under", turn on the SW-NE axis. With apo, turn south. with dia, turn west.
The structure of the missionary council of which Jesus was part was theoretically twelve plus a Gentile as 13th. John Mark as the 13th, the Gentile, was called the Twelve because the leader, the priest, was called a zero. Mark 3:16. John 20:24.
Acts 26:7. The system of 12 ascetic orders called "tribes" set out in the Temple Scroll. The "Jacob" who was patriarch of the west, their bishop under Herod the Great, was the David. It was the position of Jacob-Heli the grandfather of Jesus in the time of Herod the Great. In the time of Jesus he would not confine himself to it, and his brother James (Jacob) took on the role. Acts 26:7.
A man at grade 2. When 2 alone, a grade 2 in the abbey ranking, the equivalent of a Sariel Luke 24:13, Theudas as a grade 2 subordinate of the abbot grade 1. Angel 2 in John 20:12, Simon Magus a monastic "angel" , claiming the grades of all three leading priests, 0, 1 and 2. In Acts 1:23 James when in the role of "Joseph" the subordinate of "Jacob". A novice in the village ranking at grade 8 could be called a 2, as the grades started again with a village initiate at grade 7 as 1. In John 1:35,37 John Mark at grade 8, a novice. In John 21:2 Titus, head of Ham Gentiles. In John 20:4, Luke 24:4, Acts 1:10 andres dyo, Theudas the chief Therapeut, down to grade 8, the village 2, while a guard. Acts 10:19 Apollos as the Chief Therapeut.
Both sharp sides of the literal sword of the Davids, to be used symbolically for discipline in both east and west. Revelation 1:6, 2:12.
The word for the lower members of the congregation, from grade 9 to grade 12, who had not begun the monastic educational process. They originally included all Gentiles. The head of the class was the David prince, the third in the hierarchy of Priest, King, Prince. Under the Herods, his equal was the third Herod, in the hierarchy of Herod the Priest, the Herod crown prince as the King, and the third Herod as the Prince. He was a married man, Antipas Herod in the gospel period followed by Herod of Chalcis. When this man claimed to be able to preside over a meeting of low grade Gentiles in a form of ministry, he was called an "unclean Spirit".
with accus., Position a grade below and also on the floor below in a tower, on the dōma. Acts 2:5 , under Heaven, an abbot , grade 1 under grade 0, not found on the upper floor of a tower in "Heaven". With genitive, the position of a subordinate standing on ground level beside a superior on an elevated stand, Acts 26:6.
The next row down from a row 6 or row 12. Row 7 in Revelation 5:3, row 13 in Revelation 12:1.
A celibate Gentile, a proselyte or equivalent, who acted as the servant of a priest. Acts 13:5 John Mark. Plu. rep. Thomas John 18:18. Saul at grade 7 initiation as a missionary to celibate Gentiles, Acts 26:16.
Have the level of education of a Jewish lay bishop grade 4. Acts 7:25.
Days of unleavened bread in Acts 12:3,4; 20:6 mean 15/I , the pascha of John's gospel, meta to pascha for the Synoptic pascha 14/I.
The opposite of a Righteous One, a dynast practicing the Essene marriage rule including Nazirite retreats for prayer. An Unrighteous One was a married man , who could only visit the married quarters of an abbey. Verb in Revelation 9:10.
The married state, as opposed to the Nazirite or abstinent state called "righteousness". Acts 1:18. Without the Nazirite separations that made a husband "righteous". Luke 16:8, Acts 7:24,26.
Used for present time with the meaning "when". Mark 14:25,34; 14:54; 15:33. Luke 22:51; 23:5. Matthew 26:29,38; Matthew 26:58; 27:45, when the 9th hour, at 3 pm. Matthew 28:20. Acts 1:22, on the same day.
A time for which people had to wait due to the Julian calendar. Midnight after 6 pm Acts 1:2, noon after 6 am. Midnight at the equinox in Acts 1:2; 3:21; 22:4. December 1 as the season to be waited for instead of September, Acts 7:18. 12:05 am in Revelation 20:3,5
Of the rows 12 and 13 for village leaders, row 12 could be used by superiors as "up" and row 13 only used by subordinates as "down", kata.
A preposition used as an indication of place. epi with accus, on the same spot. Epi with dative, on the east side. Epi with gen, on the west side. In John 19:31 epi tou staurou, on the west side of the cross. Matthew 28:18, the west side of row 13.
The dais step, row 13 where village leaders sat, the first step of the rows for ministry. Acts 1:9,13.
To speak as a member of a different ministry. The opposite of legō, used of members of the same ministry. Both could be used of Pilate, who had ambivalent loyalties. John 18:29. Luke 22:58 Thomas and Peter in opposed types of ministry
An allusion to the Garden of Eden, from which vapor went up, (Gen 2:6). John Mark's Gentiles used the Eden imagery for their schools. Acts 2:19.
Used of Eleazar a servant of Agrippa in Luke 23:10. The prefix eu meant a member of the Herodian royal house, following the organization of Herod the Great.
The curtain dividing off the Holy of Holies in the Israelite sanctuary was called the veil, LXX Exodus 26:31. As the pesher of Luke 1 indicates, the curtain of the substitute Essene sanctuary, placed north-south, was opened in the center on the Day of Atonement at 3.30 pm, half an hour after the atonement ceremony was finished. The ordinary people could then see the priest, who offered to them the benefits of the atonement. This hour, 3.30 pm, became a significant one in the ritual, commemorated also at Passover. The rite was occurring on Good Friday at 3:30 pm. Additionally, the verb schizō was used, because on this particular occasion a schism broke out, dividing east from west in the mission.
To dress a priest or king in holy vestments. Mark 15:17.
A place where men of the married village class met, non-monastics. As marriage made them "unclean" the word was used for a latrine at the +1 hour place used on week-days. According to the list of places in Joshua 15, a "village" was below and attached to an elevated "city". In Luke 24:13 the Emmaus corner near Mar Saba. In Luke 24:28 the part of the meal-room set aside for Gentiles such as John Mark, of the class of proselytes who could be acolytes in a synagogue, but kept separate as Gentiles.
As abbey members drank fermented wine that could be manufactured by themselves, an abbey was called a Vineyard. It typically was found in the Diaspora, where fermented wine had necessarily come into use in the place of monastic new wine. Herod's grand houses were used as abbeys, the main one being in Rome just inside the southern wall. This was the Vineyard to which the Beloved Son came when it was under Agrippa II (Mark 12:1-10). The Herod house in Caesarea, the port to Rome, was also an abbey. Luke 22:18 the wine supplied by an abbey as part of the communal meal.
Wine spoiled by the addition of poison and sedative. The Gospel of Peter says clearly that it contained poison.
A woman in the legal status of a nun, before marriage. A young girl at the age of 14, that of the first female initiation, committed herself to become a nun, while still physically virgin (Mark 5:42 Mary Magdalene in 17 AD, year 12 of the Annas dating, so born in 3 AD), In the case of Mary the mother of Jesus, she had ceased to be physically virgin before her first wedding, but still had the legal status of a nun, a Virgin. This fact was played upon for the presentation of the true facts of the "Virgin birth".
A priest in full white vestments appearing on an elevated place, the north base (Acts 9:10), or its equivalent the podium row 10 in the outer hall (A 9:12) , to say the prayer at the significant divisions of time. At noon Acts 7:31; 11:5, 3 pm Acts 9:12; 10:17, midnight Acts 9:10, 3 am Acts 7:31; 16:9.
The king on his throne on the upper floor of the cathedral, wearing jewels, seen only obscurely from the middle floor below. Revelation 4:3.
A play on "upon the people" (dēmos). The Merari, who was called dēmos in Acts 12:22, Demas in 2 Timothy 4:10 , represented the congregation, the ordinary people, who were found in the lower half of the Rome 2 cubits of the world circle, and in places of equal status.
Speech of a dynast , not acting as priest but as one having a vote, a voice, in the 100 member council, Voice crying in the Wilderness, John Baptist preparing for the married state in 29 AD Mark 1:3. A lay dynast speaking from the platform in the vestry was called the Voice. Acts 9:4. phōnē megalē voice of a king ("great one") in the same status. Acts 2:6, This Voice, Jonathan Annas as a successor of the Baptist. Acts 2:14, lift up the Voice, hold up the token of membership permitting a man to speak and have a vote at the council.
Acts 1:26; 26;10. Have a vote in the general council.
The stone used for voting by members of the ascetics council. White for a Yes vote, black for a No vote. Revelation 2:17.
To act as a peripatetic teacher , giving teaching while walking.
Acts 9:25, 2 Corinthians 11:33. The wall in a monastery equivalent to the Israelite wall at Qumran, which divided the monastery section from the abbey section to which married pilgrims came. It acted as symbolic of the "wall of partition " dividing Jews and Gentiles, for Gentiles even if celibates were classed with the "unclean" married men. In the monastery adapted from a cathedral, (Figure 20) the wall erected from the ground floor behind the steps reaching up to row 10, where communicants knelt. Revelation 21:14 with article row 10, without article 21:12 on row 13.
Verbal debate in a council. Revelation 19:11; 20:8.
The furnace in the court (Figure 9B) when it had been stoked up with wood gave warmth to the men standing near its opening, both Thomas in the east guest seat in front of it and Peter in the inner corridor (John 18:18,25. Mark 14:54,67).
To wash an object with water to remove its "uncleanness" from contact with money from the outside world. John 13:5.
To wash vestments after defilement, according to the rules of the Temple Scroll 11QT 45:7-18. Revelation 7:14.
As described by Philo in Contemplative Life, the Therapeuts at the pentecontads held all-night meetings for a simple meal of bread and water, with sermons and hymns. In their abbeys, their schools for higher studies, such meetings were also held at the equinoxes, at the 31st or its equivalent. These dates were those on which the prophecy of a Restoration was expected to be fulfilled. The vigils consequently included watching for the heavenly intervention. Lower grade members such as pilgrims visiting the abbey were not expected to stay awake all night, only to stay up for a short time after their normal bedtime at 9 pm. They could stay awake until 10:05 pm, or as a higher discipline to 11:05 pm and midnight. They would then cease their vigilance, "sleep" in their seats in the congregation annexe. Peter and John Mark in this class attempted the three levels on the Thursday evening from 10 pm to midnight. During each hour's extension they heard sermons given by Jesus, of the type given in John chapters 14 to 17, but not the original ones as these chapters were added later. Mark 14:34,37,38.
Holy water for purifications in a jar, to be poured out. In John 2:7,9, the water that was "turned into wine" was in a jar. The word was not used for a river or cistern used for baptisms. The drink of water given to pilgrims when they traveled to an abbey, in distinction from permanent residents, initiates, and graduates who drank wine. Revelation 17:1. In Revelation 17:15 the Chief Pilgrim, successor of Peter the Rock.
Originally, the route taken when non-Jews were encountered by the ascetic teachers and persuaded to become proselytes. Its first form began in the Hinnom valley in Jerusalem, where fires constantly burned, likened to Hades, the unclean world of pagans. The Essenes had been expelled to the Essene Gate, where inside the wall they built a synagogue that received proselytes. Going outside to the latrine in the Hinnom valley at 4 am and 4 pm, they met non-Jews and as they walked back to the gate they persuaded them to become Jewish proselytes, adopting all the practices marking Jewish identity. In the synagogue they received membership, using the pools at the gate for ritual washing, and went up to the school and meal-room at the next level up for further education. This practice was especially associated with the Pharisee Hillel, remembered for his making of proselytes. The school was called the patris, after him as the Father, the Pope. At a further stage, a latrine with an associated fire was placed at the "Emmaus" corner in the Wilderness of Judea. The Way ran from this corner across the wady to the Mar Saba building. This is indicated in Luke 24:32. Being originally a place through which village pilgrims passed, Mar Saba had a synagogue on its lower level. In Luke 24:15-24 the representatives of the proselyte teachers spent an hour from 4 pm to 5 pm walking from the corner up to the synagogue, discussing scriptural interpretation on the way. At 5 pm they enacted receiving membership and by 6 pm had arrived at the school and meal-room on the middle level, called Nazara. Acts 1:16, Judas Iscariot as the levite for proselytes, leader of the Way. At first the Way included only circumcised celibate proselytes under the levite or his equivalent. The meeting-place for these was in the Way in Damascus, Acts 9:2. When the David acted as a lay levite he included men like John Mark, uncircumcised but permanently celibate in the monastic tradition. When John Mark was replaced as Chief Gentile by James Niceta, the Way was associated with him. Hence the term was used in Ephesus when Apollos was appointed Jewish bishop and James Niceta appointed Gentile bishop (Acts 18:25,26; 19:23).
In speech, used by a person who could be both a leader in his own right or a representative of the leader. When in narrative, appearing to be ungrammatical, this word, or a verb in the 1st person plural, is used as if it meant a name, that of a royal person who speaks of himself as "we". This device solves the problem of the "we" sections in the later part of Acts. They are not a sign of a separate source, but mean Jesus, who was present with his followers. He was represented by Luke, his "eunuch", who on the surface was designated "we". In John 1:14 John Mark, the predecessor of Luke, uses "we" in this sense. In the Acts usage, it was Jesus himself who was "we". This is also the case in John 21:24, where Jesus attests the doctrinal correctness of John's gospel. In Acts 2:32 with All, Thomas as the "eunuch" for the Herods, representing the eunuch proselytes in Herod's court.The term was originally used for the Sadducee priest, who had two roles. In the Jerusalem temple he was the high priest for atonement, and in the Diaspora a grade 1abbot. It was used of Jesus when he claimed the status of high priest.
A dynast who had gone down into the "flesh", the married state, was said to be "sick" or "weak" from the point of view of celibates. He occupied the seat of a woman at the village table, row 13 west center. In Mark 14:38 Jesus was saying that he was still in the married state between 10 pm and midnight, but at the same time he was permitted to teach in the Spirit, the third position in the triarchy for the lay bishop, giving the originals of the sermons in John chapters 14-17. The word applied to a Gentile counted as female (John 4:46).
In Theudas in his militant mode was called "weapons". John 18:3.
Act as a working man , characterized by toil , kopos. Revelation 2:3.
For a woman act in the role of, and wear the black dress of a separated Sister, the wife of a dynast when he returned to the monastery. In the same status as a widow. John 11:31; 20:11. Luke 23:28. For a man, mourn for another person who is "dead", excommunicated. Mark 14:72, Luke 19:41; 22:62. A man who was excommunicated had to go to the latrine as a sign of his "uncleanness", so the double meanings of "weep" in Mark 14:72, Luke 22:62, Matthew 26:75 could be drawn on.
The well at a monastery , called pēgē , from which pilgrims were given a drink of holy water. Revelation 14:7. The water represented the more elementary knowledge that pilgrims were given, whereas monastics were given more profound learning near the actual deep well Loc 110 , for which a different word, phrear is used. "The well is deep" in John 4:11 refers to this kind of learning. In CD 6:5, "the Well is the Law" refers to such monastic learning.
An allusion to the Suffering Servant of Isaiah 42:1, in whom God was "well-pleased" (LXX). In Mark 1:11 Jesus was accepted as the Suffering Servant with this term. In Luke 2:14 it is used of the David.
Rome, the capital at the western compass point, as the compass points were used instead of the name of the city. Luke 13:29, Matthew 24;27, Revelation 21:13.
A monastic cistern used for full immersion of monastics. "Not-wet", Revelation 11:6, a dry baptism not using monastic cisterns. In its place a sprinkling of water was given, such as remained in use for Christian baptism of infants. The sprinked water was called both “not-wet” and said to “rain” (brechō) in Revelation 11:6.
Refers to Greek letter T, used by Hellenist Sadducees as the initiation symbol replacing Hebrew X, the archaic form of Taw , a "t". It developed as the Christian cross. The word begins a statement, not a question. Acts 1:11; 2:12 give the fact that the upright cross was being used. Me ti, not using the T sign, John 21:5.
The Gentiles of Asher, belonging to the married class, used as their emblems "wheat" and "'barley", the grain growing in the "field", the Diaspora, to which "Adam" was sent out as a worker. James Niceta as the superior was the "wheat" and John Aquila his brother the "barley". In their organization of 12000 Asher men throughout the world, James Niceta was head of 4000 and John Aquila of 5000 (the Herod was the 3000). As the barley-harvest was in spring, the promotion of John Aquila took place at the March equinox (John 6:5-15, see barley loaves in v. 9). In Luke 22:31 Jesus warned both Peter and James Niceta as the "wheat" that Judas, the "Satan" wanted to take the money they paid in fees in order to give it to Agrippa to be wrongfully used.
These words give an exact time, one that is less significant than a main time. Hotan means 3 pm or 3 am, three hours before the main solar times 6 pm or 6 am, and for the Julian calendar 9 pm and 9 am, three hours before midnight and noon. Hote means the half-hour, at :30 or :35, the time for Gentile prayers.
On the half-hour, :30 or :35. At :30 in John 19:30, Mark 15:41, Luke 2:21,22. At :35 in John 13:12.
3 pm or 3 am or corresponding Julian times 9 pm or 9 am.
In the place for guests, the outer seat at the table. Or a distant guest-house, the Bethany buildings. Revelation 2:5; 7:13, John 1:48.
apparently interrogatives, but to be read as statements. "The 9 is where" in Luke 17:17 shows that pou refers to the low grade 9. With article, hopou is used for "the where", to mean "out of the body", up 3 grades, to grade 6, that of deacon. A person of higher grade may be on a low grade spot , as on SL11 in the hospital chamber. John 20:12, Matthew 28:6. John 20:19 the word indicates that James Niceta began in the status of lay deacon at the outset of his promotion ceremony.
The color for the summer season, when the grain was white for harvesting (John 4:35), contrasting with black for winter, red for autumn, and green for spring (the green - chlōros - horse of Revelation 6:7 is wrongly translated as "pale" for obvious reasons of credibility). In Revelation 20:11 the throne was white, indicating summer. A white vestment was worn at the summer feast, Pentecost, giving the name Whitsunday to the Christian version. The color of the linen robes of ascetics, symbolising purity. The color of the Yes voting stone, Revelation 2:17.
Rub the white linen robes of ascetics with frankincense, Hebrew lebonah meaning “whitening”. CD 11:4 shows that this was done by ascetics on the sabbath. Revelation 7:14;11:4 . The verbs “wash” followed by “whiten” in this verse show that the garments were first washed and dried, then rubbed with the whitening. The equipment for these processes was found at Ain Feshkha, photos H, J. A layer of the white substance was found by archeologists on the bottom of the shallow pools at Ain Feshkha.
Nominative only. The relative pronoun in the nominative is used as an independent pronoun for a new subject. It is used for a priest or supreme leader who has become nameless, having been deposed or removed from the named leaders at the top of the hierarchy. He continued to serve in an abbey. In the homeland, Simeon at the time of his retirement, Acts 7:18,20; 7:40. Jacob-Heli at the time of his retirement, Luke 2:11. In the Diaspora it means Matthias, the Sadducee who reigned as high priest under Herod the Great for only a short time, but who established independent Gentile abbeys, the first one at Antioch. Acts 5:36; 7:38; 13:22. In plu. rep. a levite his subordinate. Lysanias the chief Gentile of Asher acting as a deputy in Matthias' abbey, Mark 4:16.
Married men believed that they were "whole", whereas celibates were not. The word kath'olon, giving Catholic, originally meant the class of married men led by Peter. In Acts 2:2; 7:10 holos oikos, an abbey where the married were included, since oikos, "house" was for celibates.
A 3:16. Peter as head of the married Lot, holos, klēros.
literal widow, Mary the mother of Jesus. Plu rep Mary Magdalene in the status of Sister, Acts 9:41. With All, Herodian, Bernice the sister of Agrippa II a literal widow at age 15, Acts 9:39. Luke 2:37 Anna as the chief Widow, the Sarah in old age, given ministry according to the rule of 1 Timothy 5:9.
A hermitage, the place used by hermits of the Therapeuts during their periods of isolation. The original main site was on the north side of the wady north of Mird-Hyrcania. Mark 1: 4, Acts 7:30. Acts 1:20, the hermitage on the middle level of the Mount of Olives. In Revelation 17:3 , Bernice's house, a female hermitage on the west bank of the Tiber. Revelation 12:6 - The hermits of the Therapeuts meeting in huts on the north side of the wady were joined by Mary, as female hermits were permitted. They kept the sabbath rule that no travel was permitted on Friday afternoons.
A wind symbolising a political power in one of the X corners of the world, NE, SE, NW, SW. Revelation 6:13, 7:1.
Fermented wine as used by ascetics in the Diaspora, since the new wine of monastics, tirosh, 1QS 6:5-6; 1QSa 2:18-22 would not keep if brought from the homeland. Used at the Last Supper by the Diaspora party. gleukos in Acts 2:13 new wine.
An abbey, which manufactured its own fermented wine in the Diaspora, as it could not wait for the new wine used as a sacred drink by Essene monastics to arrive in Diaspora cities. At Qumran the outer hall was used as an abbey for pilgrims, under an Abba (Mark 14:36), The name Gethsemane used for it was a combination of two Hebrew words, "winepress" gath and "oil" shemen, as pilgrims and their equals were classed as "oil". Revelation 14:9; 19:15. In Revelation 14:19 winepress is the name used for the abbey attached to Agrippa's house in Rome.
The wide sleeve of a surplice, likened to a wing in the bird imagery. Revelation 9:9 , 12:14.
The "winter-stream of the Kidron" (John 18:1)was the Qumran reproduction of the wady Kidron that in the literal Jerusalem ran down between the city and the Mount of Olives. At Qumran it was the name given to the aqueduct that ran between the sanctuary-vestry on the west side and the celibate house east of the corridor. See Figure 1 locs 100, 106.
A name for the female head of an order, of Asher or Dan. Wisdom, or Wisdom of God, Luke 11:49 the head of Asher, Acts 7:10. Wisdom of Solomon Luke 11:31 the head of Dan. In Acts 7:22 the wife of Antipas.
To act under the village rule, in which a man followed his own will, not obedience to monastic superiors.
with genitive, with another of equal grade. Matthew 28:20, Mark 4:16, Luke 15:31, Acts 9:19; 13:17.
with genitive. With a superior. Luke 22:14, John 21:3 , Acts 2:14; 26:13.
Withered, be a Nazirite, one who held temporary absences from marriage In Mark 3:1-6 the man with the withered hand was a Nazirite, "hand" being a euphemism for the sexual organ. Lysanias a Nazirite, Mark 4:6.
Plu. rep. Antipas Herod II the 3rd Herod, equal to a David crown prince in the Herodian hierarchy, so working for his living as the David crown prince did. Revelation 6:11.
A witness to the Atonement, one who stood outside the windows of the Holy of Holies and carried the news of the atonement back to the villages, including the Diaspora. The original missionaries were defined in these terms. The word gave "martyr", because these missionaries were prepared to give their lives in defense of Judaism. Luke 24:48. On the prayer platform they stood above the pillars in the guest positions. In sing., the east witness, Acts 1:22. John 21:24, John Mark when relegated to the eastern guest position, that of proselytes, because of his breach with Peter's pro-Agrippa party. In plu. rep., the west witness, Luke 24:48. Saul appointed as a missionary to the east, Acts 26:16. The missionary in charge of western mission. In Revelation 1:2, 2:13, Barnabas. In Revelation 12:11, Joseph. In 12:17, Jesus. Witness 1 the abbot, the Annas priest, Witness 2 the deputy abbot, the chief Therapeut, Revelation 11:3.
The Woe uttered by an Old Testament prophet as in Isaiah 10:1 was given an exact meaning in terms of time, characteristically of Qumran. It meant a deferment of the fulfillment of prophecy for another 7 years. In Revelation 8:13 three Woes meant 21 years. When Jesus at the Last Supper pronounced a Woe on "That Man", Agrippa, he was predicting trouble for Agrippa in 7 years' time, in March 40 AD. That season was the time when the Herodian Holy War starting 1 BC should have brought victory. Acts 9 records the great changes that took place as a consequence of the non-fulfillment at that date. Mark 14:21. In Revelation 18:10,16,19, used twice so 14 years, those of the north solar intercalation.
A Chief Woman in the mission, appointed a minister to uncircumcised Gentiles. Sing. Luke 14:20, the Bride, the wife of the David, representing Dan Gentiles using wedding imagery. John 20:13,15 the wife of the David, Mary Magdalene, the queen to Jesus. Plu.rep. the female head of Asher Gentiles, Helena. Mark 15:40, Acts 1:14. Queen Helena of Adiabene, Acts 9:2. Bernice in Revelation 19:7.
The north base outside the Qumran vestry, as the position from which 12 year old boys began their education in the abbey celibate school. Their first teacher was a woman, the "Mother Sarah". Other pre-initiates, not yet "born" into the communal life, were taught from the same spot. To be "lame out of the womb of the Mother" (Acts 3:2; 14:8 ) meant a Nazirite who was at the village grade 7, but not that of the celibate school, so stood beside the north base.
Change opinions. Mark 15:44, Acts 2:7.
Plu. rep. a name for Thomas who brought in the wood for stoking up the furnace. Mark 14:43
Word, These Words
The title of the David when he was in the outside world for his dynastic marriage. In Mark 4:14, Joseph in the outside world acting for his father Jacob-Heli. A title of Jesus in the role of lay levite during his period out in the world for marriage, John 1:1, Luke 24:19. As a deputy to the Sadducee at these times, he was called "Word of God" Hence "the Word of God increased" means that he had a son (Acts 6:7, Acts 12:24). "The Word of God is not fettered" (1 Timothy 2:9) means that Jesus, unlike the other Christians in Rome, had not been imprisoned but was being protected by his friends. With an additional adjective, another person acting to represent Jesus. "This Word" is the crown prince, Joseph in Acts 7:29. James, as shown by the RLR rule in John 19:8. Matthew 28:15 Plu.rep. "These Words" also refers to James, John 19:13. Also in Luke 24:44, Acts 2:22. First Word, Acts 1:1, Luke writing as the deputy of Jesus after AD 44. Plu rep. Words, used alone, the Chief Therapeut acting on behalf of the David, Acts 7:22. These Words, Revelation 19:9 the David crown prince. Revelation 22:10 the David in his outside married role, down in grade to be equal to a crown prince.
Luke 24:19. The married class, who were workers, and who were "saved by works", received merit from their labors. Nazirite retreats for prayer were counted as "works". Acts 7:22. Revelation14:13; 15:3; 16:11; 20:12; 22:12.
The head of the married class. John 13:1; 18:36. John 1:9,10; 1:11,12 Jesus came into the world, left the celibate life of the monastery to fulfill the duty of a dynast by entering into the married state. John 21:25 the married class led by Peter, for whom Mark's gospel was composed.
Comparative of kakos, "bad" a name for the Magians, so a Magian bishop a grade lower than a Magian cardinal. Matthew 27:64.
A play on kēnsos, the Roman tribute Mark 12:14; 15:19. Matthew 22:17; 28:17. Luke 24:52. Anti-Romans accused those who paid the tribute of worshipping Caesar. The word gives a date and time , as the tribute was due on the 1st of the Julian month in the Diaspora. It was paid every 7 years by the king. It was at first paid through the Annas priest Revelation 14:7, but political developments caused changes, including the diversion of the tax money to the Beast, the leader of the anti-Rome militants (Revelation 14:9; 20:4.)
A Worthy One was a layman who was considered worthy to exercise the functions of a levite. Acts 22:6 Jesus in the levite's position east of the priest. Plu.rep Acts 12:12. He was likened to a king, his birthdays both the 1st of the Julian month and also at the equinox or solstice 31st, both times called hēmerai hikanai, Worthy Days. Acts 9:23,43.
The Roman emperor, a name given to all emperors in 6 AD at the Occupation of Judea. In CD 1:5 that year is called the Period of Wrath (Hebrew charon). In Revelation 14:8; 16:1 it is applied to Nero. in Revelation 16:19; 18:3; 19:15 to Vespasian. Revelation 12:12 the emperor Tiberius.
An equivalent of “crippled” in the set of 4 indigents. Revelation 3:17.
In singular, a book in the third division of the Old Testament, the Writings, or a communal document of equal authority. In plural, a new scripture for Gentiles that was being written in the gospel period, the earliest form of the New Testament.
A year beginning on the first of the Julian month, observed at the highest hour, noon. It is used with numbers to give a date. Year 400, Acts 13:20, the year 400 in a time division of 480 years. Year 40, Acts 7:30,36; 7:42 , the year 40 at the end of a New Exodus of 40 years. Also in combination with the number 40, tesserakontaetē, Acts 13:18. The year of the emperor's reign.With a small number, it means March 1 in the years numbered from the reign of the emperor. In Acts 19:10 etē dyo, "year 2" means March 1, 56 AD, year 2 of Nero, who became emperor in October 54 AD, his year 1 counted by this method as March 1, 55 AD. In Galatians 1:18 etē tria means March 1, 43 AD, year 3 of Claudius, counting from January 41 his year of accession as year 1. In Luke 15: 29, the Julian year observed earlier than noon,, at the 3 am dawn hour of Asher Gentiles and pilgrims
A year beginning on the solar 31st near the equinox or solstice John 18:13, Acts 11:26.
In Revelation 1:7; 14:13; 16:7; 22:20 the word spoken by a priest to indicate acceptance of an initiate.
(plu) Following the use of "we" in narrative as if it were a 3rd person name, and its use for the Chief Gentile of the order of Dan, John Mark and his successor Luke, "You" plural as a pronoun is used in the narrative to refer to the alternative Chief Gentile of the order of Asher, James Niceta, who replaced the Dan Gentile. The pronoun is used in narrative for him in John 19:35; 20:31and in Acts 1:4,5. In Acts 26:8 it is used for him in the narrative contained in Paul's speech. With pantes, "All" it means Thomas Herod, Acts 22:3, as head of the whole proselyte class, to which western Gentiles of the Way such as James Niceta belonged.
Mark 14:51; 16:5. A novice, not yet at the initiate status of a "man". Simon Magus reduced to the novice grade as a prisoner.
A person addressed who was a follower of Himself, Simon Magus. Luke 23:37.
The first initiation stage of a boy, at his Bar Mitzvah at the age of 12. Acts 26:4.
Acts 5:17; 22:3. The term originally meant an ascetic of the Diaspora who could not attend the Jerusalem temple and saw no need to do so, substituting his ascetic discipline. The attitude was held by both Sadducees such as Jonathan Annas, nationalist Pharisees, and by Samaritan Magians. When the conflicts of the 1st century AD aroused aggressive militarism, the term was narrowed down to that sense, giving the word "zealot". Luke 6:15, Acts 7:9, Galatians 1:14. The name "Cana" is from Hebrew qane´ to be "zealous". The name was used for a place of meeting for Diaspora ascetics at Ain Feshkha. Hence Nathanael, who was the Sadducee Jonathan Annas, was from Cana in John 21:2, and Simon Magus is called Kananaios in Mark 3:18 and Zēlōtēs in Luke 6:15.
Name still used for the southern slopes of Jerusalem, leading down to the Hinnom valley. Mount Zion, the Cenacle building in Jerusalem, still revered for the tomb of David, which was kept in the building in which Jewish Christians worshipped after 40 AD. Not the location of the Last Supper, which took place at Qumran, but a reproduction of it in Jerusalem. Revelation 14:1.