Complete Pesher of the Resurrection

Part C: Word for Word Pesher of Individual Passages

GOSPEL OF LUKE

© 2005 Dr. Barbara Thiering (Revised 2007)

It is no wonder that critical scholars of an earlier generation thought that Luke's gospel was late, much closer to hellenistic thought that - they believed - had never been heard of in early 1st century Judea.

It begins with two long chapters about the virgin birth of Jesus. Mark's gospel has no sign whatever of a virgin birth. Nor, in fact, has John's gospel. Luke then adds many long stories in the form of historical parables, whereas Mark had only one. John's gospel had none, only the system of miracles. When he comes to the crucifixion, Luke omits the drinking of the cup at 3 pm, and has nothing about the two criminals. He deals with the early morning visit of women to the tomb, and has a different kind of supernatural presence there. For the pesharist, Simon Magus has completely disappeared.

The same kind of information from the Dead Sea Scrolls that has revolutionised John has had the same effect on Luke's gospel. Its hellenism was familiar at Qumran in the 1st century BC or earlier. For the pesharist, there is another familiar feature. It comes from a mind very close to that of Jesus, with the same methods of both concealing and giving information, often with a humorous twist. It may be discerned that Jesus was beside Luke as he wrote the gospel, and would be with him when he wrote Acts. They were in close accord, in fact Luke was the "beloved physician" who attended Jesus in the years subsequent to the crucifixion, when he would have always suffered damaged health.

There had, however, been big political changes to which Jesus was adjusting. From 45 AD onwards the young Agrippa II was the successor to his assassinated father, approved by the emperor Claudius. The ascetics had always formed part of the households of the Herods, and the parties reflected their rivalries. Peter and Paul belonged to the court of Agrippa II, and were now using the name Christian. Like those of the young king their sympathies were with Romans, especially under the benign Claudius. Simon Magus had been the enemy of the capricious Agrippa I, and honorable men, including Jesus, had sided with him. Now there was no need for militarism against Rome, and Simon, based in Damascus, had descended into worse kinds of trickery and financial manipulation to preserve his form of mission. The pro-Magian attitudes of John's gospel had to be abandoned.

Luke's gospel was the result. It incorporated Mark, and would have been written in the few years between 45 and 49 AD, when the adjustment by the new Christian party was being made. Luke, who was the Cornelius who is named in Claudius' letter of approval for Agrippa II, one of the bearers of the letter (Josephus, Ant.20, 14). As Cornelius, his involvement with the Agrippas is recorded in Acts 10:1-48. He remained with Paul and the Romans, his presence in the record always indicating the presence of Jesus.

Luke 23:44-56
3:00 pm

44. Kai ēn ēdē hōsei hōra hektē kai skotos egeneto eph' holēn tēn gēn heōs hōras enatēs

44. And it was already about a 6th hour. And a darkness came about upon the whole earth until{heōs} a 9th hour.

44. It was the true noon following the three hours' correction(so the cover that had been left over rows 9-12 of the vestry at the fast noon, true 9 am, was now removed ). At the true 3 pm it was replaced.

3:30 pm

45. tou hēliou eklipontos, eschisthē de to katapetasma tou naou meson.

45. The Sun being eclipsed, the veil of the sanctuary was split in the middle.

45. At 3:30 pm Simon Magus claiming to be the Zadokite lost his power. The symbolism of the divided curtain for the atonement of the laity, always performed at 3:30 pm, was enacted.With it a schism between east and west took place.

3:30 pm

46. Kai phōnēsas phōnē megalē ho Iēsous eipen, Pater, eis cheiras sou paratithemai to pneuma mou. Touto de eipōn exepneusen.

46. And having voiced in a great voice Jesus said, " Father, at your hands I put-beside the Spirit of me." He (Jesus, subject of participle RLR to subject of verb before speech) saying this out- Spirited.

46. At 3:30 pm Jesus as a king member of the council said, "Pope, I can act in your position in the west". Saying this lay doctrine, he separated from Jonathan Annas and became semi-conscious.

3:30 pm

47. Idōn de hekatontarchēs to genomenon edoxazen ton theon legōn, 'Ontōs ho anthrōpos houtos dikaios ēn.

47. The centurion (Greek form) seeing{eidon} the thing come about glorified God saying, "Indeed This Man{anthrōpos} was righteous."

47. John Mark on the east side of Jesus looked up through cubits 5 and 4 to cubit 3, to Jesus' waist. (He pricked his right side as a test for death - not stated in Luke). He treated Jonathan Annas as no more than a bishop, saying "Jesus is still alive but sick, so at the grade of a lay Nazirite."

3:35 pm

48. kai pantes hoi symparagenomenoi ochloi epi tēn theōrian tautēn, theōrēsantes ta genomena, typtontes ta stēthē hypestrephon.

48. And All Ones crowds coming about-beside-with upon this seeing{theōreō}-position, seeing{theōreō} the things come-about, striking the chests, turned under.

48. After 3:35 pm Antipas briefly replaced Helena on the north base, for she had left it to come down to the cross of Jesus with the other women, to prepare him for being carried down the esplanade covered with the cloak. There were 4 cubits between the line extending row 12 for the north base and the line extending row 17 for the feet of the Heavenly Man, rows 12-17 being those of the congregation. Antipas with his authority as a presbyter declared Helena to be only a deacon. He then went down after the women to the caves, where he would begin carrying out his plan to rescue Simon Magus.

3:35 pm and 3:50 pm

49. heistēkeisan de pantes hoi gnōstoi autō apo makrothen, kai gynaikes hai synakolouthousai autō apo tēs Galilaias , horōsai tauta.

49. All the ones having knowledge{gnōstos} to him(RLR to Jesus v.47) stood from afar. And Women who followed- with to him(RLR to Jesus) from Galilee, to see{horaō} These Things.

49. Thomas, a monastic, the levite of Helena, took the north base after Helena and Antipas left it. Helena acting as a deacon to Jesus led the four women carrying him to the top of the cliff above the caves, then when the men carried him down into cave 8Q, Helena in her male role went down also. She stood on the first step outside the caves (Figure 5), which like other places where the bishop of Galilee stood, could be called "Galilee". She looked through 2 cubits down to the openings of the caves.

4:00 pm

50. Kai idou anēr onomati Iōsēph bouleutēs hyparchōn kai anēr agathos kai dikaios

50. And see{eidon} a man{anēr} by name Joseph a councillor ruling -under. And a good{agathos} man{anēr}. And righteous.

50. At 4:00 pm James joined Pilate at the 150 cubit line at the end of the southern esplanade. James was the David crown prince, with the title of Joseph, now the head of the lay council, controlling the king's property. As an acolyte he acted at grade 6, that of a deacon. He was also a grade 5 Nazirite presbyter.

4:00 pm

51. houtos ouk ēn syngkatatetheimenos tē boulē kai tē praxei autōn apo Harimathaias poleōs tōn Ioudaiōn, hos prosedecheto tēn basileian tou theou,

51. This one was not putting-down- with the council {boulē}. And to the practice of them(RLR to Women v.49) from Arimathea a city of the Jews. Who expected the kingdom of God.

51. James was no longer a subordinate member of the lay council but the acting king. He conducted Gentile services for proselytes, as Helena did also. His own centre was at Mird-Hyrcania, but as the David he came to Ain Feshkha. He was a member of the Sadducee ministry under Jonathan Annas (so held his brother Jesus to be legitimate and himself the crown prince).

4:00 pm

52. houtos proselthōn tō Pilatō ētēsato to sōma tou Iēsou,

52. This one coming-towards{erchomai} to Pilate asked for the body of Jesus(genitive).

52. At the end of the esplanade he stood beside Pilate and offered a bribe to be declared the successor of the dead Jesus, so owning his sacred monstrance.

4:05 pm

53. kai kathelōn enetylixen auto sindoni, kai ethēken auton en mnēmati laxeutō hou ouk ēn oudeis oupō keimenos.

53. And lifting down(participle RLR to last subject James) wrapped it (the body of Jesus) in a tunic. And he(James) put him(RLR to Pilate v .52) in a tomb{mnēma) carved out, of which not No One was not yet lying.

53. James held the monstrance of Jesus and wrapped it in its cloth to take down to the caves. As now a representative of Pilate's authority , he marked the doubled dungeon door with the Roman emblem . He locked it, latching it to the stone wall. It was a moment of non-fulfilment of the prophecy. James not acting as a deacon but as a king was in front of the dungeon door.

4:05 pm

54. kai hēmera ēn paraskeuēs, kai sabbaton epephōsken.

54. And it was a day of preparation. And a sabbath lit upon.

54. It was now 4:05 pm, one form of the Friday afternoon beginning of the sabbath. It was also the early start of the south solar Night position 31st.

4:05 pm

55. Katakolouthēsasai de hai gynaikes, haitines ēsan synelēlythuiai ek tēs Galilaias autō, etheasanto to mnēmeion kai hōs etethē to sōma autou,

55. The Women following down, the Certain Ones (fem plu) who were coming with out of Galilee to him(RLR to James Nemo v.53), saw{theaomai} the tomb. And as the body of him(RLR to James) was put.

55. Helena had come down to the dungeon to see where Simon had been imprisoned. She stood on the eastern top step beside James on the western top step. Setting out up the path to the north-east, she stood in the cubit marking the end of the diagonal of X of the circle , with 5 cubits between her and the dungeon door. James came up with her, to go in to the place north of the vestry where Pilate was officiating with the monstrance of James.

5:00 pm, 6:00 pm

56. hypostrepsasai de hētoimasan arōmata kai myra. Kai to men sabbaton ēsychasan kata tēn entolēn,

56. They (fem. plu., Women Helena) turning under prepared aromatic spices. And ointment. And the sabbath they rested according to the commandment.

56. Helena went down to the south-west, to the queen's house, for the 5 pm female ablutions. She prepared aromatic spices to give to James for initiating proselytes. The women were given ointment. At 6 pm when the 31st began she observed the sabbath by Sadducee rules.

Luke 24:1-12
3:00 am

1. tē de mia tōn sabbatōn orthrou batheōs epi to mnēma ēlthon pherousai ha hētoimasan arōmata.

1. On the 1 of the sabbaths of deep dawn, upon the tomb{mnēma) they(RLR to Women, Helena 23:56) came, carrying (fem plu) the aromatic spices which they prepared.

1. On Saturday at 3:00 am, New Year's day the 1st from the Julian midnight, 3 hours later for Therapeuts and villagers, Helena arrived inside the dungeon doorway, not yet closed, standing on the Rock that had just been replaced over the dungeon. She carried her container of aromatic spices that she used for initiating proselytes.

3:03 am

2. heuron de ton lithon apokekylismenon apo tou mnēmeiou,

2. They found the Stone rolled from, from the tomb{mnēmeion)

2. At 3:03 she saw the Stone rolled back into the western cave.

4:00 am

3. eiselthousai de ouch heuron to sōma tou kyriou Iēsou.

3. Coming at (fem plu) they did not find the body of the lord Jesus.

3. Standing on the inner path she wanted to be a levitical bishop as Jesus was, giving the sacred meal to Gentiles, but she was forbidden to do so (by Simon), told to be only a lay bishop.

(The events from 3:00 am to 3:05 including the emergence of Simon from the dungeon are not recorded by Luke. He goes on to 4:00, when Theudas as the deputy to Simon as "Pope Lightning" acted under Simon's instructions.)

4:00 am

4. kai egeneto en tō aporeisthai autas peri toutou kai idou andres dyo epestēsan autais en esthēti astraptousē.

4. And it came about in they (fem plu) being anxious around This One. And see{eidon} 2 men{anēr} stood -upon to them(fem plu) in a lightning-like garment{esthēs}.

4. The next significant time was 4:00 am. Helena acted as an equal to Theudas. On the hour, for the changing of the guard, Theudas stood in front of the open dungeon door, with Helena in front of the open western door, in which the Stone had been replaced. Having changed his views and been appointed deputy to Simon Magus, Theudas wore a vestment with the insignia of Simon as Pope Lightning.

4:00 am

5. emphobōn de genomenōn autōn kai klinousōn ta prosōpa eis tēn gēn eipan pros autas, ti zēteite ton zōnta meta tōn nekrōn

5. They(RLR to "two men", as Helena is addressed) coming about fearing. And inclining the faces at the earth they said towards them (fem plu), " T you seek the Living One with{meta} the dead ones{nekros}"

5. Theudas observed the time point of 4 am significant for Therapeuts. He moved into the open doorway of the dungeon, within which the Rock had been replaced after Simon left it, in order to keep Judas in the dungeon. Theudas took the strip of cloth that he wore round his neck to make a hood for his cloak, and stuffed it in the openings in the square niche that had been made when the mortar was removed. His purpose was to carry out the plan to suffocate Judas in the dungeon. While he was doing it he said to Helena, "Under Hellenist Sadducee rules you are a lay bishop equal to Jesus, ministering to Gentiles."

4:00 am

6. ouk estin hōde, alla ēgerthē, mnēsthēte hōs elalēsen hymin eti ōn en tē Galilaia,

6. He (RLR to Living One, Jesus) is not here, but has arisen. Remember as he spoke to you still being in Galilee.

6. "Jesus is not in the western cave, but has been promoted to the level of a village priest. Repeat from memory the words of the spoken prayer for Gentiles that he gave from the north base,

4:00 am

7. legōn to huion tou anthrōpou hoti dei paradothēnai eis cheiras anthrōpōn hamartōlōn kai staurōthenai kai tē tritē hēmera anastēnai.

7. saying the Son of Man{anthrōpos}, that he must be given-beside at hands of sinners Men{anthrōpos}. And be crucified. And on the third day stand up.

7. teaching that a dynast, the deputy of a celibate "Adam", must act as a levite while living in the village among married men, supported from welfare funds. He is "cursed", like an Adam excluded from "Eden". Then he returns to the monastery (when his wife is three months pregnant), on the 31st at the solar calendar season."

4:00 am

8. kai emnēsthēsan tōn rēmatōn autou,

8. And they(RLR to Helena v.5) remembered the statements of him(RLR to son of Man v.7).

8. Helena agreed to give oral teaching to Gentile proselytes, not using a written record.

(At 4:05 Theudas locked the door of the dungeon, leaving Judas to suffocate inside. At the same time he swung back the western half of the centrally hinged door over the western cave and locked it)

4:05 am, 5:00 am

9. kai hypostrepsasai apo tou mnēmeiou apēngeilen tauta panta tois hendeka kai pasin tois loipois.

9. And they (fem plu) turning under from the tomb{mnēmeion) announced All These Things to the eleven. And to All the rest (masc.plu.Thomas).

9. At 4:05 am Helena left the door of the western cave and went up the path in a north-easterly direction. She went down to the queen's house, and at 5:00 she acted as a celibate equal with John Mark, who was representing Mary Magdalene. Thomas the chief proselyte was present.

6:00 am

10. ēsan de hē Magdalēnē Maria kai Iōanna kai Maria hē Iakōbou. Kai hai loipai syn autais elegon pros tous apostolous tauta.

10. They (RLR to Thomas) were. Mary Magdalene. And Joanna (Helena). And Mary of James. And the rest (fem plu. Mary Mother) with them (fem. plu.Helena) said towards the apostles These Things.

10. At the 6 am sunrise service at the queen's house Mary Magdalene led prayers for celibate Gentiles. Helena led prayers for Asher Gentiles, represented by James Niceta. Mary of Cleopas was present. Mary Mother, head of celibate proselytes, stood in front of John Mark who was now her superior.

6:00 am

11. kai ephanēsan enōpion autōn hōsei lēros ta rēmata tauta, kai ēpistoun autais

11. And they(RLR to These Things) appeared before{enōpion} them(RLR to apostles) about nonsense, these statements. And they(RLR to apostles) did not believe them(fem plu. Helena)

11. The teaching for proselytes given by Mary Mother was rejected by John Mark. He did not accept the Sadducee view that Helena could act as a priest

noon, 3:05 pm

12. Ho de Petros anastas edramen epi to mnēmeion, kai parakypsas blepei to othonia mona. Kai apēlthen pros heauton thaumazōn to gegonos.

12. Peter having stood up ran upon the tomb{mnēmeion} . And having stooped beside he sees{blepō} the cloths alone. And he came from{erchomai} towards Himself wondering at the thing come about.

12. At noon on Saturday Peter and Thomas finished the version of the sabbath they used, beginning at the Julian half-day on Friday at noon. They came up to the Qumran buildings, where Thomas stayed in at the vestry for the purpose of causing a distraction while Simon Magus was being removed at 3 pm. Peter came out and down to the caves, sent Merari into the buildings, and replaced Merari as a guard. At 2:55 pm Peter and Theudas opened both doors and removed both stones. They went into the dungeon, lifted up Judas - who had earlier been made to drink poison - brought him into the western cave with its windows, and threw him out of the southern window to be smashed on the rocks far below. Then at 3:00 pm Peter came out to the guard's position outside the dungeon door, leaned sideways, and saw Judas' cloak lying at th end of the shaft, where they had left it. Peter then came to the first step in front of Simon Magus, Himself. He had changed his views to accept Simon's claim of resurrection of Jesus, recognizing their political value. He and Theudas lifted the couch of Simon and carried him secretly, without being seen by those in the vestry, down to the queen's house and to Ain Feshkha



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