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pesharim of the Dead Sea Scrolls:

The pesharim of the Dead Sea Scrolls, found at Qumran, take books of the Old Testament, quote them phrase by phrase, and apply them to events of their own time.

Their arbitrary treatment of the Old Testament books supplies a definition of scripture, claiming that it contains a second level of meaning that was known only to those with an insider's information, in other words that it was coded.

Their theory of scripture, but not their arbitrary practice, is the first step in a new method of dealing with books of the New Testament, revealing a history that was deliberately placed there.




1QS - The Community Rule
CD - The Damascus Document
11QT - The Temple Scroll
1QH - The Hymns of Thanksgiving
1QM - The War Scroll

1Q, 4Q etc mean that the document was found in Qumran Cave 1, Cave 4 etc.
1QpHab means the pesher on Habakkuk found in Qumran Cave 1.

Similarly all abbreviations with a lower case "p", followed by an abbreviation for an Old Testament book, mean the pesher on that book.

Fragments and pesharim are alternatively given numbers, e.g. 4Q169 for the pesher on Nahum, 4Q171 for the pesher on Psalms. These are given here in brackets beside the name.

DJD - Discoveries in the Judean Desert. The series of volumes of the official publications of fragments.

OT - Old Testament. NT - New Testament.
JW - The Jewish War, by Josephus
Ant. - Jewish Antiquities, by Josephus

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